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大学での英語学習にこれから取り組むにあたって,抽象語彙の分野で最低限これくらいは覚えておいて欲しいというものをあげておきます.抽象形容詞,抽象名詞,抽象動詞の順番にアルファベット順で,用例をそれぞれひとつだけつけて列挙しています.実際のところ,これらの単語には様々な意味や用法があり,それらのすべてをここに網羅することはできません.付された日本語訳や添付された用例は,あくまで一例にすぎないことを知っておいて下さい.また,ある語を使えるようになるためには,発音,およびコロケーションの知識も欠かせません.どうかこれらの詳細については,辞書などを利用して自分で調べることを心がけて下さい.以下のリストは,皆さんのボキャブラリー・ビルディングの一助になればという思いで作ったものです.これらをクリアしているとすれば,もっともっと高度な語彙の習得に励んでみて下さい.英語の検定試験でハイスコアをねらう場合,本章の範囲だけでは不足です.語の難易度は英和辞典の(星)印が目安を与えてくれます.また,” は標準的な第 1 アクセントの位置(の 1 つ)を示しています(このウェブ版では省略しています).(A) (B) はアメリカ英語,イギリス英語を表します(厳密に区別されているとは限りません).複数の意味を記載している箇所はその一つの例文を挙げています.

11.1.  抽象形容詞 (Abstract Adjectives)

abnormal 異常な  The doctor said that I had an abnormal level of white blood cells.
abrupt 不意の  The meeting came to an abrupt end.
absolute 絶対の  The British Monarchy used to have absolute power; now it has very little.
abstract 抽象的な  His problem is that he argues in an abstract way, never giving practical examples.
absurd 不合理な  The amount of work she was expected to do was absurd; it was simply beyond a joke.
abundant 豊富な  There was an abundant rice crop that year; the previous harvest had been very poor.
acceptable 受け入れられる  The fact that he was constantly late was not acceptable to his boss.
accurate 正確な  That map of the USA is not accurate; it is misleading.
acid しんらつな  In telling her that she was ill-educated, and that she always would be, he made an acid remark.
acute 鋭い  Robert was an acute student, especially when it came to difficult mathematical problems.
aggressive 攻撃的な  It is better to be gentle with people rather than aggressive.
alert 油断ない  He was blind and so alert to the slightest sound.
ambiguous あいまいな  It could mean this; it could mean that; it is entirely ambiguous.
ambitious 野心的な  John wants to get on in life; he is highly ambitious.
ample 十二分な  I have ample time in which to complete this project; usually, I only have a few hours.
annual 年 1 回の  Birthdays occur once a year; like Christmas, they are an annual event.
appropriate 適切な  Jeans are OK for casual wear, but they are not appropriate for the office.
approximate およその  How long will it take you? You don't have to be exact: you can give me an approximate time.
apt ... しがちだ  Jim has a tendency to get drunk; he is especially apt to drink too much beer at weekends.
arbitrary 恣意的な  You must think long and hard before making your mind up; an arbitrary decision will not do.
assured 確信して  Although he had been assured that he would get the job, it went to someone else.
authentic 本物の  There are some Japanese restaurants in London; but they are not the real thing; they are not authentic.
available 利用できる  Coffee is available but we do not sell tea.
awkward ぎこちない,ぶざまな  Everyone was speaking English, and as Yoko's English was not very good, she felt awkward.

*

bald 禿の  My father has very little hair; he is almost bald.
barbarous 未開の,野蛮な  Some countries behave in a barbarous rather than a civilized way.
bent 決心した  I tried to persuade him against going to Alaska, but he was bent on making the trip.
blank 白紙の  When he tried to remember the answers, his mind went blank.
blunt 不躾な  It is very blunt to ask someone his or her age.
brilliant 輝かしい,優秀な  Alfred Brendel is a brilliant pianist; no one plays Beethoven better.
brisk きびきびした  John walks slowly, whereas I am a brisk walker.
brutal 残忍な  Some men are brutal because they often hit their wives.

*

candid 率直な  Americans tend to give candid answers to questions; they often say exactly what they think.
capricious 気まぐれな,衝動的な  I bought a dress on Saturday which, on Sunday, I hated; I'm capricious when it comes to clothes.
cautious 注意深い  Sam's mother does things without thinking but his father thinks a lot; he is much more cautious.
classic 古典的な  Soseki's “Botchan” is a classic novel because every generation continues to read and enjoy it.
classical 古典風の  I prefer classical furniture, the kind that won't go out of fashion in a short time.
clumsy 不器用な  He was a clumsy person who was always breaking things.
coarse 粗野な  Michael speaks in a rude, vulgar way; in fact, he is a coarse person in general.
collective 集団的な  The company was in a mess and it was no one person's fault; there was a collective responsibility.
colonial 植民地の  India used to be a British colony but it is now independent and no longer under colonial rule.
commemorative 記念の  In London, there is a statue to help people to remember the First World War; often, there are many commemorative statues in capital cities.
commonplace ありふれた  He thought that he had said something unusual but his opinion was commonplace.
comparable 匹敵する,類似の  Prices in Tokyo and London are now comparable; they are both expensive cities.
comparative 比較の  Professor Walker studies comparative linguistics; he is particularly interested in looking at the similarities and differences between English and Sanskrit.
competent 能力のある  Because the pilot was badly trained he was not competent to fly the plane and it crashed.
competitive 競争心の強い  Mary always wants to get better grades than her friends; she is a very competitive student.
comprehensive 包括的な  Please take time over your report; I want it to be as broad, as comprehensive, as possible.
compulsory 強制の  In Greece, military service is compulsory at 18; all men have to do it for two or three years.
conceivable 考えられる  Tony couldn't imagine what a total eclipse of the sun would be like; it was barely conceivable to him.
concrete 具体的な  Try not to write in such an abstract way; we need concrete details, lots of specific information.
conditional 条件付きの  He was given a conditional offer of a place at London University; the condition was that he had to pass his entrance examination first.
confident 確信して,自信を持った  Lucy is sure that she can pass her driving test; she is confident about everything she does.
confidential (文書などが)内々の  This document is secret; it shouldn't be shown to anyone else. Please write ‘confidential’at the top.
confused 当惑した,混乱した  I am confused about when I should meet you: did you say Thursday or Friday?
conscientious 良心的な  If you are conscientious, if you are prepared to work hard for long hours, we will pay you well.
conscious 意識した  John was aware that he was annoying Samantha; usually, he was not conscious of these things.
consecutive 連続的な  The pages of your report should be consecutive; each one should follow the other in the right sequence.
conservative 保守的な  Martin never takes risks; he is highly conservative.
considerable かなりの  His salary is not small; it's a considerable amount.
considerate 思いやりある  ‘Try to be more considerate of others,’she said. ‘You're always coming home late and making lots of noise.'
consistent 首尾一貫した  One day he wanted to marry her and another day he didn't; his feelings weren't consistent.
conspicuous 人目を引く  Jonathan wore a pink neck-tie which was very conspicuous.
constructive 建設的な  Robert's comments are always destructive, always negative; he never makes helpful, constructive suggestions.
contemporary 同時代の  A new gallery of contemporary art is shortly to open in London.
convinced 確信している  I am convinced that you will pass the examination.
convincing 説得力のある  Rita is so convincing; she argues well about everything.
cooperative 協力的な  Andy has refused to help his colleagues; he is a poor member of the office because he is never cooperative.
cordial 真心こめた  They are not the best of friends, but they are usually cordial, each treating the other with kindness and respect.
corresponding 対応する,類似の  There are corresponding features between Tokyo and New York: both, for example, are large, exciting cities.
corrupt 堕落した,腐敗した  There are many corrupt politicians, especially those susceptible to bribery.
costly 犠牲を伴う  He worked long hours, but this was costly to his family because they hardly ever saw him.
courageous 勇敢な  The employee was courageous in criticizing his section head; he risked being dismissed.
courteous 丁重な  Tom, who is a courteous man, held the door open for Sarah.
crucial 決定的な  The blood stain was the crucial evidence needed to convict the murderer.
crude 粗野な  His jokes were funny, but they were sometimes crude and embarrassing.
curious 関心のある  It is important for a research student to be curious, to be constantly asking questions about things.
customary 習慣的な  It is customary for Japanese people to bow whereas the British usually shake hands.
cynical 冷笑的な  Cynical people often scorn the beliefs of others and end up sneering at everything.

*

decent きちんとした  Helen was a moral, decent sort of person who would never break the law.
decisive 明確な,決断力のある  I can never choose what to eat in a restaurant but my friend is more decisive.
defensive 防御の  He often makes defensive remarks, even when he is not being attacked.
deliberate 慎重な,故意の  His smashing of the window was deliberate; it was not an accident.
delightful 喜ばしい  The flowers were delightful; they were such a beautiful color (A)/ colour (B).
desperate 絶望的な  The poor man felt so desperate that he nearly committed suicide.
devoted 献身的な  Mothers are often devoted to their children, giving them all the care and attention they can.
diligent 勤勉な  Unless students are diligent, working in an organized way with lots of concentration, they are unlikely to be successful.
diverse 多様な  America is a diverse society: there are people from lots of countries there.
domestic 家庭の  Ted was fed up with domestic troubles and finally got divorced.
dubious 疑っている  My mother is dubious about what I told her yesterday; but she often disbelieves what I tell her.

*

economic 経済上の  There are economic reasons why North Korea should renew trade contact with the USA; the country might become much more prosperous.
economical 経済的な(= 節約になる)  Buses are more economical than trains. They are often much cheaper.
efficient 有能な  Paul will finish the work on time as he is very efficient.
elaborate 手のこんだ  Some people enjoy an elaborate breakfast; others have a piece of toast or nothing at all.
elastic 弾力性のある  His schedule was not elastic; it was too rigid to allow last-minute changes.
electronic 電子工学の  John's father had been an electrical engineer, specializing in household wiring; his son wants to study electronic equipment such as computers.
elegant 優美な  Jeans might be comfortable, but they are not elegant like the kimono.
eligible 適切な  Mr. and Mrs. James are eligible for membership of our society; they can join tomorrow.
eloquent 雄弁な  Patricia is not a very good speaker, but Jane is an eloquent speaker with an amazingly large vocabulary.
embarrassed どぎまぎした  When Nick knocked over his drink he felt so embarrassed; he had made such a fool of himself.
embarrassing どぎまぎさせるような  It is embarrassing to do something silly in public.
eminent 著名な  Professor Thompson knows a lot about blood disorders; he is very eminent in his field.
emphatic 強調した  The doctor was emphatic about the fact that I had to give up smoking; he would not change his mind.
enormous 巨大な  Tokyo is enormous; in fact, it is one of the world's biggest cities.
envious ねたんでいる  Tim's brother is rich and famous; that's why he's so envious of him.
equivalent 同等の  One imperial pint is equivalent to 0.568 liters (A)/ litres (B).
eternal 永遠の,果てしない  The class was eternal; it seemed to go on forever.
ethical 道徳にかなった  It is not ethical for a government official to take bribes.
evident 明白な  It is often evident that someone has been bitten by mosquitoes as you can see the red lumps.
excess 制限外の  Excess baggage on planes is very expensive. (修飾先の名詞のアクセント位置が第 1 アクセントのときは exess)
excessive 過度の  Excessive eating makes people fat.
exclusive 排他的な  There are many exclusive clubs in London; it costs a great deal to become a member.
explicit 明示的な  The teacher's instructions were difficult to follow because they were not clear enough. Such instructions should always be as explicit as possible.
explosive 爆発しそうな,一触即発の  It was an explosive situation: each person had to remain calm if an argument was to be avoided.
expressive 表現に富む  Poetry is a very expressive way of using language; prose is often much less expressive.
extensive 広い  An extensive area of this city was devastated by that earthquake; hardly any of it remained intact.
external 外部の  Some of Japan's economic problems have been internal, especially those relating to its banking system; but there have also been external factors such as the collapse of other Asian economies.
extraordinary 並はずれた  Tim is a good, but rather ordinary violinist; Mark, however, is so extraordinary he could become a professional.

*

faint かすかな  Pencils produce marks that are much fainter than pens.
faithful 忠実な  The production was not faithful to the original because too many of Shakespeare's lines were left out.
fascinating 魅力的な  The movie was far from boring; it was absolutely fascinating.
fatal 致命的な  The plane crash was fatal; everyone died.
fearful 恐れている  He was fearful about going to the dentist as he hated pain.
fearless 恐れを知らない  Soldiers are often fearless in battle, refusing to surrender.
feeble 弱い  John used to be extremely strong, but since his illness he has become feeble.
female 女性の  Formally, we can talk about “female children,” but the word “girls” is more likely.
fertile 肥沃な  Many parts of Kyushu are fertile and rice grows well there.
feverish 熱狂的な  Just before the election there was a lot of feverish activity in the politician's office.
fierce 獰猛な  Lions are fierce animals whereas sheep are timid.
finite 有限の  Life is finite; it has to come to an end.
fiscal 財政上の  The Japanese government has huge fiscal problems because it has been spending so much money to stimulate the economy.
fixed 固定した  Currency exchange rates used to be fixed but in most countries now they float.
flexible 柔軟な  Fixed plans often fail; it is better to be flexible.
fluent 流暢な  Mary has been learning Japanese for only two years, but she is quite fluent.
fluid 流動的な  The situation is fluid; it is difficult to predict what will happen.
forgetful もの忘れをする  Elephants are said to have good memories; they are not forgetful.
fragile もろい  Chinese vases can easily be shattered; they are extremely fragile.
frail 弱い  When we are young we are strong, but as we get older we can become more and more frail.
frank 率直な  I want you to be as frank as possible by telling me exactly what you are thinking.
frantic 血迷った  John became frantic when he lost his wallet because there was so much money in it.
frequent 頻繁な  There is a frequent rail service between Fukuoka and Osaka; there are several trains an hour.
frightful 恐ろしい,不愉快な  Ann wore so much bright red lipstick she looked frightful.
fruitful 実りの多い  The negotiations between the two countries were not fruitful; they failed to reach agreement.
functional 機能的な  The building was not beautiful, but it worked well; it was highly functional.
fundamental 基礎の,基本的な  Learning vocabulary is fundamental if you want to speak English well; it is the basis of everything else.
furious 激怒した  He was furious with himself for missing the plane; he had never been so angry.

*

generous 気前の良い,思いやりのある  You should always be generous in helping the aged; they often have bad health and little money.
genuine 本物の  I doubt if this is a genuine pearl; I think that it is synthetic.
geographical 地理(学)的な  The main geographical reason why Britain became a wealthy country was its proximity to other European countries and the USA.
global (全)世界的な  English is now a global language; it is spoken all over the world.
gloomy 憂鬱な  Susan felt gloomy because she had done so badly in the examination.
glorious 光輝く  It was a glorious day: the sun was shining and there wasn't a cloud in the sky.
gorgeous 華麗な  Her dress, which was made from white silk, was gorgeous.
graceful 優美な,品のある  Ryoko made a graceful apology.
gracious (目下に対して)優しい  He accepted his apology in a gracious way; he was not rude and aggressive.
gradual 徐々に進む  There is nothing gradual about earthquakes; they happen suddenly.
grammatical 文法上正しい  It is not grammatical to say ‘he walk down the street'.
grassy 草の多い  After the long, hot summer, that park was no longer grassy.
grateful 感謝した  The blind man was grateful when someone helped him across the road.
grave 重大な  His illness was grave: he was not expected to live very long.
greedy 貪欲な  He had had enough to eat but wanted more because he was greedy.
grim 厳しい,冷酷な,ぞっとする  The news was grim: many more people had died in the earthquake than had been feared.
gross ひどい  He often shouted at people and behaved in other gross ways.
guilty 有罪の  The court found him guilty even though he had insisted on his innocence.

*

hardworking 勤勉な  Terry was a hardworking student which is why he did so well.
harmful 有害な  Too much alcohol is harmful to the health.
harmless 無害な  Moderate amounts of alcohol are harmless.
harmonious 調和した  They agree about everything; they are a harmonious couple.
harsh 粗い,むごい  He was sentenced to ten years in prison; many people thought that this was too harsh a punishment and that he should have been fined instead.
hasty 急いだ  He gave a hasty answer and regretted it later because he was quite wrong.
hateful 憎むべき  She was a hateful person; she was always so mean to everyone.
headlong まっしぐらの  The horse made a headlong dive into the fence.
hearty 心からの  The professor was given a hearty welcome at the reception.
helpful 有用な  It will be helpful if you bring a dictionary to the class.
helpless 無力な  As she could not swim, she was helpless in the water.
heroic 英雄的な  She was rescued from drowning by a heroic man who jumped into the sea.
historic 歴史的に重要な  The Meiji Restoration was an historic event.
historical 歴史上の  Historical research has demonstrated the importance of the Meiji Restoration.
hollow うつろな,実質のない  It was a hollow victory: Britain had won the war, but Germany became much more prosperous.
homemade 自家製の  Martha never bought bread from the bakery; her bread was homemade.
honorable 高潔な  The politician admitted his crime and resigned because he was honorable.
honorary 名誉上の  He was an honorary professor; he received no salary.
horizontal 水平な  We usually sleep in a horizontal position whereas we walk vertically.
horrible 恐ろしい,ひどい  The food was not nice; on the contrary, it was horrible.
hospitable もてなしのよい  Americans can be very hospitable towards foreigners, helping them in all kind of ways.
hostile 敵意のある  The enemies became even more hostile towards each other when the war broke out.
humane 人情のある  The prisoners were treated in a humane way: they had enough to eat and were not tortured.
humble つつましい  Mr. Fisher is humble even though he is clever.
humid 湿気の多い  It is so humid that I cannot stop sweating.

*

icy 氷のような,大変冷たい  It is icy today; it's so cold that the river has frozen.
identical 同一の  The twins were identical; you really couldn't tell one from the other.
idle 遊んでいる  He never did any work; he was so idle.
ignorant 知らない  Matthew knew very little about anything; he was almost completely ignorant.
illegal 非合法の  It is illegal to drink alcohol under the age of 20 in Japan.
imaginable 想像できる限りの  I tried every imaginable method.
imaginary 想像上の,架空の  A dragon is an imaginary animal; such animals don't really exist.
imaginative 想像力のある  He was an imaginative boss because he was always coming up with interesting ideas.
immature 未成熟の  Although she is 25, she behaves like a child; she is so immature for her age.
immense 莫大な,広大な  Russia is an immense country; it is unimaginably large.
immoral 不道徳な  It is immoral to have an affair when married.
immortal 不死の  I do not believe that humans are immortal, that their souls can live forever.
immune 免れた,免疫のある  Once you are vaccinated against typhoid, you are immune from the disease.
impatient 我慢できない  The child was impatient to open his birthday gifts.
imperative 必須の,命令の  You are so unwell it is imperative that you see a doctor immediately.
imperfect 不完全な  The cloth was imperfect because there were several holes in it.
impersonal 個人的でない,そっけない  John sent me an impersonal letter; it was as if we had never been friends.
implicit 暗黙の  He was not asked to complete the work by the end of January, but this was implicit in the letter.
impolite 失礼な  Some people are impolite, or rude, most of the time.
impractical 実際にうとい  Mike is an impractical person; he has no idea how to repair anything.
improper 不適切な  It is improper to wear shorts at a funeral.
impulsive 衝動的な  People who make hasty decisions are impulsive.
inadequate 不十分な  He spoke only his own language and this made him feel inadequate.
inclusive 含めて  The rent is inclusive of electricity and gas; you don't have to pay for these separately.
incompatible 気が合わない  The couple were so incompatible they got divorced.
incomplete 不完全な  The work on the house was incomplete so they couldn't move in.
incorrect 不正確な  His solution to the mathematical problem was incorrect.
incredible 信じられない  It is incredible that it can sometimes be so warm in the winter.
indefinite 不明瞭な  He would not say whether he could attend the party; he answered in an indefinite way.
indifferent 無関心な  He was indifferent about where they went because he hated vacations.
indignant 憤慨した  He was indignant at the suggestion that he had cheated.
indirect 間接的な  Martin did not believe in answering questions with a ‘yes’or a ‘no'; he preferred to be indirect.
indispensable 絶対必要な  Money is indispensable if you are to enjoy life.
industrial 産業の,工業の  We can say that Japan is an industrial country; many goods are manufactured there.
industrious 勤勉な  The Japanese are an industrious, hardworking people.
inevitable 不可避の  Death is inevitable; it cannot be avoided.
infectious 感染性の  The common cold is infectious because the germs travel through the air; AIDS is contagious because there has to be actual contact between people.
inferior 劣る  Some people believe that Russian cars are inferior to Japanese.
infinite 無限の  There is an infinite number of stars in the universe; they are countless.
influential 影響力のある  He was an influential person who knew lots of powerful people.
informal 形式的でない  He never wore neck-ties as he was informal.
ingenious 独創的な  The solution to the problem was ingenious; it surprised even the cleverest professor.
innocent 世間知らずの  He was an innocent kind of person, unsuspecting of how mean and vicious some people could be.
innumerable 数えきれない  There are so many reasons for continuing to work hard; they are innumerable.
inquisitive 詮索好きな  My aunt is really inquisitive about my friends; she's always asking questions about them.
insane 狂気の  Michael is mad; I'm sure he is clinically insane.
insecure 不安に思っている  Robert felt insecure in his new job; he expected that he might be sacked at any time.
insensitive 鈍感な  People who make rude remarks about others are completely insensitive.
insigni゙cant 取るに足らない  There are some errors in your report, but they are so small as to be insignificant.
insistent こだわる  I wanted to pay, but she was insistent about settling the restaurant bill.
instructive 教育的な,ためになる  It was a terrible experience but, because he learned so much from it, was also an instructive one.
integral 必要不可欠な  It is impossible to separate questions of health and diet; one is integral to the other.
intense 強烈な  The heat has been intense this summer; I have never known a hotter August.
intensive 集中的な  Why don't you take an intensive English course this summer? You'll learn a lot in a short time.
intent 熱心な  He is so intent on his studies that he is bound to succeed.
intentional 故意の  His insult was not intentional; he had not meant to be rude.
interchangeable 取り替えがきく  Americans say ‘sick’and the English ‘ill', but both words are interchangeable.
interdisciplinary 学際的な  Samantha is studying the environment in an interdisciplinary way: she uses methodologies from biology, environmental science, and economics.
intermediate 中級の  This is an intermediate course for communication in English; when it is completed, you can move on to the advanced level.
internal 内部の  The company made an internal appointment; it promoted one of its own employees.
intimate 親密な  Brian knew Sally very well; they were intimate with each other.
intolerable 耐えられない  Your behavior (A) / behaviour (B) is intolerable; I cannot accept your constant laziness.
intricate 込み入った  Watches have intricate mechanisms.
intuitive 直観力のある  Tortoises are intuitive about the seasons; they know when it is the right time to hibernate.
invisible 目に見えない  I couldn't see her anywhere in the crowd; she was invisible to me.
ironic 皮肉な  Brad was being ironic; he was saying one thing but meaning another.
irregular 不規則な  The trains in Britain are often irregular; they arrive at all kinds of different times and cannot be relied upon.
irrelevant 的はずれな  His speech on Australia was interesting but quite a lot of what he had to say about China was irrelevant.
irresponsible 無責任な  Mr. Forbes takes his work seriously whereas Mr. Jones is irresponsible.

*

jealous 嫉妬深い  My girlfriend is always talking to other boys; that's why I am jealous.
jolly 快活な,陽気な  It was a jolly party; everyone laughed a lot.
joyful 喜ばしい  Christmas is a joyful time of the year.
judicial 裁判の  This was a matter for the courts; it needed a judicial review.
justified 正当である  He was fully justified in getting angry with his lazy brother.

*

keen 熱心な  I would not be keen on going to Paris; in fact, I don't think I would like the city at all.
kindhearted 親切な  Ian is a kindhearted, generous person who can never see others in trouble without helping.

*

lasting 永続する  My trip to New York will be a lasting memory; I shall never forget what a wonderful city it is.
lean 脂肪の少ない,やせた  I like beef, but only if it is very lean; I hate fat.
learned 学問のある  Despite the fact that the doctor was extremely learned, he misread the test results.
legal 法律に関する  James has a wonderful legal mind; he understands how the law works.
legendary 伝説上の  As a boy, Mozart was a legendary musician; he was known all over Europe.
legible 判読できる  I cannot read your handwriting; please make it more legible.
legislative 立法の  The Japanese Diet is a legislative body; it is responsible for making laws.
legitimate 適法の  The company failed to get planning permission so the new hotel was not legitimate.
lengthy 長たらしい  The meeting was lengthy; it lasted for over five hours.
lesser より小さい  French is of lesser importance than English these days.
liable 法的責任のある  He crashed into the back of a car and was liable for the damage.
liberal 物惜しみしない,自由主義の  You add salt to your food in too liberal a way; you must cut down.
likely ありそうな  An interest-rate cut is one of the most likely policies to be considered.
limited 限られた  The world-supply of oil is limited; we must use it carefully.
literal 文字どおりの  The literal meaning of ‘the cat is out of the bag’is peculiar; figuratively, it means that a secret has been given away.
literate 読み書きのできる  Japanese people are highly literate; even during the Meiji period a large number of people could read and write.
lively 元気のよい  John is a lively kind of person; he can never sit still in one place.
living 生きている  It has become common for living donors to supply organs; in the past, organs came from dead people.
local その土地の  There are local bus services within the city and other services between cities.
logical 論理的な,理にかなった  Logical thinking is the process whereby conclusions are arrived at on the basis of sound premises which guarantee their validity.
lonely 孤独な  Living on one's own can be a lonely experience.
lovely 気高く美しい  She was a lovely person; she was always thinking about others and was such fun to be with.
loving 愛情に満ちた  He was not a very loving husband because his wife hardly saw him and they had no children.
loyal 忠実な  A loyal friend will not desert you whatever problems arise.
luxurious ぜいたくな  It was a luxurious vacation; we stayed in a magnificent hotel and had breakfast in bed every day.

*

magnificent 壮大な  The hotel was magnificent: it was large, architecturally exciting, and had many exotic restaurants.
male 男性の  The male voice can charm women.
manifest 明白な  There are obvious, manifest reasons why you should avoid walking outside during a typhoon.
manly 男らしい  It is thought by some that a muscular body is manly.
manual 手で行う  As a builder, he was a manual worker; he didn't use his head at all.
marine 海の  Marine life in the Sea of Japan is in danger from pollution.
marvelous 素晴しい  It was a marvelous performance; I have never enjoyed myself so much at the theater (A) / theatre (B).
massive 大きくて重い,甚だしい  He had a massive headache; it took three days for him to recover.
mathematical 数学の  Some students are not very good at solving mathematical problems.
mature 熟した  The wine, which had been kept for many years, was now mature enough to drink.
mean 卑劣な,けちな  Rosamond would never pay for anything; she was so mean.
meaningful 意味のある  The negotiations were meaningful; good progress was made.
meaningless 意味のない  The negotiations were meaningless; no progress was made.
mechanical 機械的な  He acted in a mechanical kind of way, without thinking.
medical 医学の  This is a medical problem and, therefore, you need to go to the hospital.
medium 中くらいの  He asked for a medium-size pizza; he wasn't hungry enough for a large one.
memorial 追悼の  My father died a few weeks ago and there will be a memorial service for him tomorrow.
merciful 慈悲深い,幸いな  Bob thought that he would fail his driving test, so it was a merciful relief to him when he passed.
merciless 無慈悲な  The judge was merciless in sentencing the murderer to death.
merry 陽気な  On festive occasions people often drink lots of beer and become merry.
metropolitan 大都市の,首都の,都会人風の  He was a metropolitan kind of person, having lived in big cities all his life.
mild (程度の)かるい,まろやかな  I can eat mild curries, but hot ones make my mouth burn.
minus 負の  Mr. Thompson was enthusiastic; but on the minus side, his English was poor.
mischievous いたずら好きの  Children can be very mischievous; they are always finding new ways of being naughty.
miserable みじめな  At weekends he was happy, but he became miserable again on Mondays.
misleading 誤解を与えるような  It is misleading to conclude that because Japan is a wealthy country, salaries are high.
missing 行方不明の  The missing book was eventually found by the librarian on the wrong shelf.
mixed 混ざりあった  The boss's reaction to the proposal was mixed: he liked some parts of it and hated others.
mobile 移動性の  What the Japanese call portable hand sets (PHS), the British call ‘mobile phones'.
moderate 適度の  Bruce eats only moderate amounts which is why he is quite thin.
modest 謙遜な  Mrs. Wilkinson, being a modest person, never boasted about her accomplishments.
moist 湿った  The soil was still moist even though there had been no rain that day.
monotonous 単調な  He spoke in a monotonous way.
monstrous 怪物のような  It is a monstrous building in which you can easily lose your way.
monumental 不朽の,巨大な  A history of the development of the world's languages would be a monumental book.
mortal 死をまぬがれない  All animals are mortal; they all die.
muddy 泥だらけの  The field was muddy because it was sodden with rain.
multiple 多くの部分からなる  His arm, as it was broken in more than one place, had multiple fractures.
municipal 市(町)の  From the nineteenth-century on, in English, the word ‘municipal’(as in ‘municipal government') related to city government.
muscular 筋肉の  The pain in his arm was muscular.
mutual お互いの  Countries sometimes establish a mutual defense (A) / defence (B) treaty: this means that each will come to the defense (A) / defence (B) of the other if either is attacked.

*

naive 単純な  His beliefs are naive because he lacks education.
naked 裸の,赤裸々な  The naked truth, boldly expressed, is hard to take.
nasty いやな  The whole conversation left a nasty taste in her mouth.
native 生まれつきの  Being born and bred in Japan, he was a native speaker of Japanese.
naughty いたずらな,行儀の悪い  Eating lots of cakes is a naughty pleasure.
naval 海軍の  The Americans have a naval base in Okinawa.
nearby すぐ近くの  He went to the nearby convenience store.
neat きちんとした  His room was always neat and tidy.
needless 不必要な  His journey was a needless one as he could have phoned instead.
negative 否定的な,陰性の  The result of his blood test was negative; he did not have the disease.
nervous 神経質な  Mr. Collins is a nervous man; there is always something worrying him.
net 掛値のない,正味の  My gross salary is quite good; but I pay quite a lot of tax, so my net pay is not so good.
neutral 中立の  Switzerland remained a neutral country during the Second World War; it refused to take sides.
noisy やかましい  It was such a noisy bar that we couldn't hear each other speak.
noticeable 目立った  In the daylight the stain on the dress was noticeable.
novel 目新しい  There are so many novel technological developments now that it is impossible to keep up with them.
nuclear 核の  In developed countries, families are nuclear rather than extended. The family unit has become much smaller.
numb 感覚のない,しびれた  After the dentist gave him an injection, his gum became numb.
numerous 多数の  There are numerous museums in London.

*

obedient 従順な  Rex was an obedient dog; he would always sit on command.
obligatory 義務的な  For a Christian, loving one's neighbor (A) / neighbour (B) is obligatory.
obliged 感謝している,義務を負う  A Christian is obliged to help his neighbor (A) / neighbour (B).
oblivious 気に留めない  The oblivious man slept through all the noise.
obscure はっきりしない  The poem was extremely obscure and difficult to understand.
obvious 明らかな  In essays, students often forget to make obvious points.
occasional 時折の  Occasional memory lapses are common amongst older people.
odd 変な  He lost his keys; the odd thing was that he was usually so careful with them.
offensive いやな,不快な  The stale food had an offensive smell.
optimistic 楽観的な  Mark was not optimistic; he feared the worst.
oral 口(頭)の  Oral hygiene, brushing the teeth regularly, is vital if tooth decay is to be avoided.
orderly 整頓された  During fires, people should leave buildings in a calm and orderly manner.
Oriental, oriental 東洋の  Eastern, or oriental, food is often delicious.
orthodox 正統的な  Professor Bradley believes in doing everything in the right way; he is a highly orthodox person.
outer 外側の  Ever since he was a child, Yuri Gagarin had wanted to go to outer space.
outrageous 常軌を逸した  The prices are so high in this store they are outrageous.
outstanding 目立つ,傑出した  After an outstanding performance from one of the pitchers, the baseball team easily won the game.
outward 表面的な  To all outward appearances he seemed quite cheerful; secretly, though, he was very miserable.
overnight 夜通しの,1 泊用の  As he was only staying in Tokyo for two days, he simply took an overnight bag.
overseas 海外の  In Britain, overseas students have to pay higher fees than home students.
overwhelming 圧倒的な  He received overwhelming thanks for all his work.

*

parallel 平行な  Parallel lines never meet.
partial 部分的な  There was a partial truth in what he said, but he overlooked some of the facts.
passing つかの間の  Margaret had a passing interest in learning to play the piano, but she hasn't touched the instrument for a long time.
passionate 情熱的な  She was a passionate woman who was always full of the most powerful feelings about everything.
passive 受け身の  Watching television can be a passive way of spending time.
patent 特許の  ‘Coca Cola’is a patent name; it can only be used by one company worldwide.
pathetic 感傷的な  Mr. Soames was a pathetic man: every day he promised to turn over a new leaf, but he never did.
pedestrian 平凡な  His pedestrian book added nothing new to the subject.
perpetual 絶え間のない  That Saturday there was a perpetual noise; it simply never stopped.
persistent 固執する,しつこい  He was a persistent salesman, eventually persuading the couple to buy the car.
pertinent 直接関係がある,適切な  For once, his comment was pertinent; usually, his observations were beside the point.
plain 飾りのない,香料を加えない  Simon hated mustard on his hot dogs as he liked them as plain as possible.
plentiful たっぷりある  Rice is so plentiful in Japan that it has at least five years’supply stored in warehouses.
plural 複数の  ‘Man’is singular and ‘men’is plural.
plus 正の  Don't forget to use a plus sign if you want numbers to be added together.
poetic 詩の,詩人の,詩的な  His writing was sentimental, flowery, poetic.
pointed 先の)尖った  It used to be fashionable to wear shoes with pointed toes.
poisonous 有毒の  Alcohol is poisonous.
polite 礼儀正しい  It is polite to be reserved in Japan.
portable 携帯用の  Large computers are not portable; they cannot be carried around easily.
positive 積極的な  With a positive attitude everything is possible.
postal 郵便の  Postal services have improved enormously in the last 100 years; it takes only four or five days for a letter from Japan to reach England.
potential 可能性のある  There is a potential danger involved in walking during a typhoon.
preferable 好ましい  Walking is preferable to traveling (A) / travelling (B) by car for those in need of exercise.
pregnant 妊娠している  Pregnant women should avoid cigarettes and alcohol.
preliminary 予備的な  Before the main university entrance examination in Japan, there is a preliminary test.
presidential 大統領の  There are presidential elections in the USA every four years.
prevalent 流行している  Smallpox used to be a prevalent disease but it is now practically extinct.
previous 先の,前の  He very much enjoyed his second trip to Australia; he had hated his previous vacation there.
primitive 原始的な,遅れた  After Tokyo, London seemed rather primitive; most shops, for instance, were closed by early evening.
productive 生産力のある  Professor Mitson's eighth book has just been published; he is one of the most productive members of the department.
profitable もうけになる  The restaurant had to close as it was no longer profitable.
profound 深遠な  Confucius was a profound thinker.
progressive 進歩的な  Progressive women believe that a woman should have the right to work when married.
prominent 傑出した  Fukuoka tower is a prominent landmark in the city.
promising 期待できる  The promising weather means that we might be able to go on a picnic after all.
prompt 迅速な  Punctuality is important in this company; I expect a prompt start to work.
prospective 予想される,見込みのある  Prospective employees first have to be interviewed.
prosperous 繁栄している,裕福な  In older age, he became prosperous and was able to travel extensively.
protective 保護的な  It is important to wear protective clothing when it is cold.
psychological 心理学上の  Physically, Ian was fine; but he had a lot of psychological problems.

*

quaint 風変わりでおもしろい  People used to travel in horse-driven carriages; this is a quaint sight nowadays.
qualified 資格のある  Having studied for many years, he was a fully qualified lawyer.
qualitative 質的な  His qualitative assessment of the food was that it was excellent: everything was fresh and of the best.
quantitative 量的な  His quantitative assessment of the food was that it was very poor: there simply wasn't enough of it.
queer 風変わりな  Just before Mary fainted, she had a queer feeling in her head.

*

racial 人種上の  Some people believe that there is a lot of racial prejudice in Britain; foreigners can find life difficult there.
radiant 輝いた  Tina's radiant eyes were very striking.
radical 過激な  The government is tackling the economic problem in a superficial way when what is needed is radical action.
ragged ぼろぼろの  The beggar wore ragged clothes.
random 不揃いの,無作為の  Random ticket-holders win lottery prizes.
rational 理性のある,合理的な  There is a difference between rational and irrational beliefs: it is rational to believe that plane crashes are rare, but it is irrational to believe in ghosts.
reactionary 反動的な  Reactionary governments care little about civil liberties.
rear 後ろの  When driving, it's important to look through the rear mirror from time to time.
reckless 向こう見ずな  The accident occurred because Jimmy drove in a reckless way.
reddish 赤みがかった  In the early autumn, trees in Japan are a reddish color (A) / colour (B); later, they are a vivid red.
refined 洗練された,精製した  Refined gasoline can be used for cars.
regional 地域的の  There are regional differences in Japan: people in Kyushu drink more tea than those in Shikoku, for example.
regretful 悔やんでいる  Steve was regretful about crashing his father's car.
regrettable 悲しむべき  It was regrettable that Steve had crashed his father's car.
related 関係のある  The point I want to make is a different one, but it is related to the previous speaker's remarks.
relative 相対的な  Time is relative: sometimes it seems to pass slowly, at others it flies by.
relevant (当面の問題に)関連した  Time is short, so all your points must be relevant ones.
reliable 頼りになる  This service is reliable; the buses are always on time.
relieved ほっとした  I was relieved to hear that my brother passed the test.
reluctant 気が進まない  The reluctant student attended the class, however unwillingly.
repentant 遺憾に思っている  He was sorry for his actions and everyone believed that he was truly repentant.
republican 共和国の,共和党の  Republican politicians are to the right of the political spectrum and democrats to the left.
residential 住宅の  This is a residential area; it consists mainly of apartment blocks.
respectable 尊敬に値する,社会的地位の高い  Late-night bars are unwelcome here because this is a respectable neighborhood (A) / neighbourhood (B).
respectful 敬意を表する  Younger people should be respectful towards their elders.
respective めいめいの  Both families had problems, but their respective problems were quite different.
restless 落ち着かない,眠れない  Colin had a restless night because of his insomnia.
revolutionary 革命的な  The computer is one of the modern world's revolutionary developments.
rhythmic(cal) リズム(感)のある  Rhythmical people are good at dancing and playing the drums.
ridiculous ばかげた,途方もない  Rolex watches are a ridiculous price; I just laugh out loud when I see them.
righteous 正義の,有徳な  In the Christian tradition, a righteous person serves God and reads the Bible.
rigid 硬直した  If rules are too rigid, people will just ignore them.
romantic 空想的な,恋愛に耽る  Romantic novels are about love and marriage.
rosy バラ色の  He was an optimist; he always had a rosy view of life.
royal 王の,王さながらの  Mr. Simms had royal treatment at the hotel; he felt like a king.
rude 無作法な  Country people are often regarded as having rude customs by city dwellers.
rugged でこぼこした  Switzerland is full of rugged mountains.
rural いなかの  Rural living is all very well, but give me city life any time.

*

sacred 神聖な  Temples are sacred places.
sandy 砂地の  There are plenty of sandy beaches in Greece.
sane 正気の,良識のある  He was a sane kind of person, always behaving in a reasonable way.
satisfactory 満足のゆく  His work was far from satisfactory so he was dismissed.
savage 獰猛な,猛烈な  The earthquake caused savage damage.
scared おびえた  Margaret was always scared at the dentist's.
scornful 軽蔑している  He thought John's suggestion was crazy and replied to it in a scornful way.
secure 安全な  A good job is important for a secure future.
selective 選抜する  Education in Japanese universities is selective: students have to pass entrance examinations.
self-conscious 自意識過剰の  He could never forget himself at parties; he was always self-conscious.
senseless 無意味な  It was a senseless decision; no one could understand it.
sensible 思慮のある  He was a sensible man, spending his money wisely.
sensitive 神経過敏な  Maria is highly sensitive; she is quick to take offense (A) / offence (B).
sentimental 感傷的な  Sad movies always make Tricia cry; she is extremely sentimental.
sequential 連続的な  Please shelve the books in a sequential way according to the date of publication.
shady 陰の多い,怪しい  He was a shady character who could not be trusted.
shallow 浅い,浅薄な  Political analysis is often shallow in newspapers; it offers no depth.
shameful 恥ずべき  It was shameful to rob the old woman of her money.
shapeless まとまりのない  The argument of his shapeless essay was all over the place.
sheer 全くの  It was sheer chance that she happened to be crossing the road just as the truck that hit her came around the corner.
significant 重要な  Just give me the significant details: I don't have the time to hear the whole story.
simultaneous 同時の  Simultaneous interpretation is sometimes available at conferences: what a speaker says in one language is relayed in another.
sincere 本心からの  He offered his sincere apologies; he was really sorry.
singular 風変わりな  Mark's tattoo gave him a singular appearance.
situated 位置している  Fukuoka is situated in Kyushu.
sizable かなりの大きさの  After the accident, he noticed a sizable cut on his left leg; it would need treatment.
skilled 熟練した  Skilled workers, those with special training, earn higher salaries.
skillful 技量のある  He was a skillful tennis player, always outwitting his opponents.
slender やせ形の,わずかな,不充分な  He offered only a slender justification for his crime and was, therefore, sentenced to life imprisonment.
slim ほっそりした,わずかな  There is only a slim chance that you will win the national lottery.
slipperyみにくい  He was a slippery talker; it was hard to pin him down.
sloppy いいかげんな  His book was sloppy; there were many errors in it.
sly ずるい  Michael was a sly character who was always scheming against people.
sober 節度のある,酔っていない  He led a sober life.
so-called いわゆる  So-called peace-keeping forces often end up fighting.
solar 太陽の  Solar-power is safer than nuclear power.
sole ただ一つの  The sole reason why he quit the job was that he hated his boss. There was simply no other reason.
solemn おごそかな  Funerals are solemn occasions.
sophisticated (都会風に)洗練された  She visited Paris a lot and felt sophisticated.
sore 痛い  They agreed never to talk about their dispute; this was a sore point between them.
sorrowful 悲嘆に暮れている  People are often sorrowful at funerals.
sour 酸っぱい,難しい  After America bombed the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, relations were sour between the two countries.
sovereign 君主の,容赦のない  People who cannot read are often treated with sovereign contempt.
speci゙c 特定の  Don't beat around the bush; give me a specific reason.
spectacular はなばなしい  Distributing money to the homeless was a spectacular action.
spontaneous 自発的な  The political revolution was not planned, it was simply spontaneous.
stable 安定した  After being admitted to hospital, he was in a stable condition. He was no better and no worse.
stale 古くなった,言い古された  Politicians who want to win elections often make the same stale promises.
static 静的な  Dynamic people are always moving around; static people travel as little as possible.
stationary 静止した  The palace guard did not move; he remained absolutely stationary.
steep 険しい,無茶な  The company was nearly bankrupt; the new manager had a steep challenge.
stern 厳格な  Liz is a stern person who rarely smiles.
sticky やっかいで嫌な  He was going through a sticky patch as he had no money.
stiff 硬い,やっかいな,難しい  Living alone is a stiff test of one's self-reliance.
stormy 荒れた,波瀾に満ちた  His marriage was stormy and ended in divorce.
strict 厳しい  He was on a strict diet and could not eat any cakes.
stubborn 頑固な  His was a stubborn refusal; there was no way that he could be persuaded to speak at the meeting.
subjective 主観的な  Professor Brand's views could not be verified by others; they were entirely subjective.
subsequent その後の  The first problem was difficult to deal with; but subsequent problems were even more complicated.
substantial 実質的な  There were no substantial reasons why the class was canceled (A) / cancelled (B); the professor just didn't feel like teaching that day.
subtle 微妙な,捉え難い  His insults were subtle; they almost seemed like forms of flattery.
suburban 郊外の,偏狭な  He had a suburban, provincial mentality.
successive 続いての  Successive failures at school meant that he had no option but to work for the rest of his life in a convenience store.
sufficient 十分な  He could not show sufficient provocation for acting so violently.
sunny 快活な,陽気な  Martin had a sunny disposition; he was always smiling.
superficial 皮相的な  The lawyer's arguments were only superficial, and he lost the case.
supreme 最高の  For a poet, imagination is of supreme importance.
suspicious 疑わしい  A suspicious package was delivered; it looked a little like a bomb.
swift 速い  His swift decision was welcome; many thought that it would take a long time for him to make up his mind.
swollen ふくれた,増大した  The more successful he became, the more swollen his pride; in the end, he was very big-headed.
symbolic 象徴的な  The agreement between the two countries was purely symbolic; neither had any intentions of being bound by it.
symmetrical 左右対称の  Most heads are symmetrical in that there is an eye and an ear on either side.
systematic 組織立った,計画性のある  Dr Forbes was a systematic reader: he read all the works of one writer before moving on to another.

*

talented 才能のある  Even talented musicians find it hard to make a living.
tame 従順な,飼いならされた  Legally, the building had to be checked out before being purchased; a tame, sympathetic surveyor was used.
temperate 節度のある  The temperate consumption of alcohol is recommended; heavy drinking is bad for the health.
tender 若い,幼い  During his tender years, when he was very young, he had a tough time at school.
tense 緊張した  There were tense feelings between the rival teams.
tentative 仮の,一時的な  During the Taiwan earthquake, tentative offers of help from China were rejected.
terri゙c すばらしい  It was a terrific performance; rarely had Beethoven's music seemed so powerful.
thoughtful 思いやりのある  Some people are thoughtful; others are thoughtless and selfish.
tolerable 耐えられる  The food was barely tolerable, but he ate it in the end.
tolerant 寛容な  Historically, the Catholic Church has not been tolerant of other religions.
tragic 悲劇的な  It was a tragic mistake; the plane plunged into the sea.
transparent 透き通っている,包み隠しのない  There is a call for Japanese banking procedures to become much more transparent: they are often shrouded in mystery.
tremendous 途方もない  Winning the match was a tremendous boost to his confidence.
triumphant 勝ち誇った  The chairperson was triumphant in the meeting; he won the support of all.
trivial ささいな  Don't waste your time on trivial work. Do something important.
tropical 熱帯の  It was so humid, the atmosphere was almost tropical.
troublesome やっかいな  Software problems, once they develop, can be endlessly troublesome.
typical 典型的な  Concentrate on what is typical, not on the exceptional.

*

ultimate 究極の  Qualifying as a doctor was his ultimate goal.
unanimous 満場一致の  No one disagreed; the vote was unanimous.
unaware 気がつかないで  Without pain, we would often be unaware of danger.
uncomfortable 心地悪い  His position as leader was an uncomfortable one given that he was so corrupt.
uncommon 珍しい  Smallpox is an uncommon disease these days.
unconscious 無意識の  He was unconscious of the extent to which he was annoying his fellow students by bragging all the time.
uncountable 数えられない  “Rice” is an uncountable noun, whereas “potato” is not.
underground 地下(組織)の  During the war, the underground movement in France opposed the Nazi occupation.
underlying 基礎をなす,底にある  There were underlying reasons why Tom looked so unwell; only a few people knew them.
undue 不当な  Many people attach undue importance to wealth.
uneasy 不安な  Samantha felt uneasy about her mother's poor health.
unexpected 予期しない  “Be prepared” is the motto of the scouts; they try to avoid the unexpected.
unfair 不公平な  Students whose parents can afford private education have an unfair advantage over others.
unfortunate 不運な  His accident was unfortunate, but no one could be blamed for it.
united 団結した  The opposition parties presented a united front in the hope of defeating the government.
unjust 不公平な  There are many unjust decisions in the courts.
unnatural 不自然な  Some people think that it is unnatural for men to stay home and look after children.
unpaid 未払いの  Mike's friend had helped him beyond measure; such a debt would always be unpaid.
unpleasant 不愉快な  Being chastised by his boss was a deeply unpleasant experience for the employee.
unsatisfactory 不満足な  This essay is unsatisfactory; please write it again.
untidy 乱雑な  Untidy writing is difficult to read.
unwilling いやいやながらの  Professor Tyke was unwilling to fail the student, but he had no choice.
upright 公正な,高潔な  Upright citizens are always helping others.
up-to-date 最新(式)の  Good professors are always on top of up-to-date research.
utter 全くの  His speech was utter nonsense from beginning to end.

*

vacant 空虚な  He did badly at job interviews because he always had such a vacant expression on his face.
vague はっきりしない  Mrs. Carruthers offered only vague reasons as to why she had forgotten to feed the cat.
valid 妥当な  A valid reason is one that will convince others.
variable 変わりやすい  Weather conditions are variable in London: it can be fine one minute, and raining the next.
vast 広大な  He was well-read and had a vast intellectual reach.
vertical 垂直の  Bipeds (people or animals with two legs) often walk in a vertical position; animals on four legs do not.
vicious 悪意のある  His fighting was vicious; he would stop at nothing to win.
vigorous 活気に満ちた  His vigorous defense (A) / defence (B) of his client was not enough to have him acquitted.
visual 視覚による  Mr. Braithwaite had a visual mind; he preferred pictures to words.
vivid 生き生きとした  Marcus had a vivid memory; he could remember the tiniest details about an event.
vocal 声の  Vocal, rather than written, persuasion is often more effective.
vocational 職業の  Vocational training is sometimes more important than pure academic study.
vulnerable 傷つけられやすい  Poor people are always more vulnerable than the rich.

*

wanting 足りない  His language was wanting in expression; it was too crude.
wealthy 裕福な  Although he was not wealthy materially, he had a wealth of imagination.
weary 疲れ果てた  Matt was weary, intellectually; he had been studying too long.
widespread 広く行き渡った  There is a widespread belief that smoking causes lung cancer.
worldwide 世界的な  There is worldwide concern at global warming.
worthless 価値のない  In war, human life becomes worthless.
worthwhile やりがいのある  Medicine can be a worthwhile profession.

*

youthful 若々しい  Professor Jones was youthful despite his eighty years.

 

11.2.  抽象名詞 (Abstract Nouns)

abolition 廃止  The abolition of slavery was a good thing.
absorption 吸収  His ideas were beyond absorption.
acceleration 加速(度)  There was an acceleration of diplomatic activities because war was imminent.
acceptance 受諾  Fast-food is gaining acceptance in Japan.
access 接近  There was no access to his thoughts; he was a private person.
accommodation 解決,宿泊設備 (pl.) The two countries sought an accommodation over their long- standing problems.
accomplishment 功績,成果  Learning three languages was his main accomplishment.
accumulation 蓄積  The accumulation of proposals was so great; a separate meeting had to be called.
accuracy 正確さ  The accuracy of his thesis was called into question.
achievement 達成  Educational achievement is highly regarded these days.
acknowledg(e)ment 認識  There is sometimes little acknowledgement of the problems of the developing world in Britain and America.
acquaintance 知っていること  His acquaintance with the Japanese language was slight.
acquisition 獲得  Martha's most precious acquisition was a Rembrandt painting.
adaptation 適応  His adaptation to life in Japan went very smoothly.
adjustment 調整,適応  Living in a foreign country required a big adjustment to its culture.
administration 管理,運営  Successful administration depends on a well-trained work-force.
admiration 称賛  There has been a greater admiration of Charles Dickens’work since his death.
admission 自認  His admission of guilt came as a surprise.
affection 愛情  John's affection for Italy is well known.
aid 援助  A dictionary is a good aid to understanding a language.
alliance 協力,同盟  A successful company needs a strong alliance between its workers.
allowance 斟酌,手当  Although he was always sleeping in class, an allowance had to be made for the fact that he worked late into the night.
ally 同盟者  Everyone needs a good ally, someone he or she can depend on.
amazement 驚き  There was general amazement when the discovery of DNA was announced.
ambition 野心  His ambition, the thing he hoped for more than anything, was to become a successful pop star.
amendment 修正  An amendment to the document was necessary because there was an error.
amusement 楽しみ  Pachinko can be a costly form of amusement.
analogy 類似  Where two ideas resemble each other in some way, there is said to be an analogy.
annoyance いらだたしさ  Late trains are an annoyance.
anticipation 予期  Animals salivate when there is an anticipation of food.
anxiety 不安  There is a lot of anxiety in Japan about job security.
apology 謝罪  He offered a sincere apology for all the blunders he had made.
apparatus 装置,仕掛け  The scholarly apparatus of his book, especially its footnotes, was weak.
appeal 魅力  The appeal of Indian food, for some people, is in its hot spices.
applause 拍手(してほめること)  Loud applause greeted the end of the concert.
appreciation 感謝  The audience showed its appreciation by applauding.
approval 是認  There was widespread approval for the government's policy, most people thinking it a good one.
architecture 建築様式  Venice has many fine buildings, which is why its architecture is so famous.
arithmetic 算数  Arithmetic is the more or less simple manipulation of numbers, whereas mathematics involves much more abstract calculations.
aspect 見方,解釈  Obsessive people often think that there is only one aspect to a problem.
assertion 主張,断言  Groundless assertion is not at all the same thing as reasoned argument.
assessment 査定  His assessment of the patient's situation was that an operation was urgently needed.
assumption 仮定  Professor Wilde makes assumptions about other people too easily; he rarely stops to find out the truth about them.
assurance 保証  An assurance has been given that it is now safe to travel on the Shinkansen.
astonishment 驚き  Inexplicable events, such as the appearance of ghosts, often produce astonishment.
astronomy 天文学  Astronomy is the scientific study of the stars whereas astrology is a mystical art involving the predicting of the future.
athletics 運動競技  Competitive running is a form of athletics.
attachment 愛着,愛情  Dogs often develop a deep attachment to their owners.
attainment 到達,達成  His main educational attainment was his PhD degree.
attendance 出席  Any student whose attendance is poor will not gain a credit for this class.
attraction 魅力  American movies are a big attraction in Japan.
attribute 属性  Patience was Shirley's strongest attribute.
axis   Third-world debt was the axis around which his talk revolved.

*

bargain 取り引き  The Palestinians and Israelis are trying to strike a bargain, to establish a compromise, in their peace talks.
barrier 障壁  He spoke no Japanese; this was a huge communication barrier when he visited Japan.
beam 光線  Although there are problems now, there is a beam of light at the end of the tunnel. Things will get better in the future.
benefit 利益  One benefit of learning a second language is that it becomes easier to learn others.
betrayal 裏切り  His lying was a betrayal of his principles.
bid 企図,努力  His bid to win the gold medal was unsuccessful.
biography 伝記  There are several biographies of Shakespeare's life.
biology 生物学  Biology is the scientific study of plant and animal life.
bitterness 苦さ  Quarrels can leave feelings of bitterness behind
blessing 祝福,ありがたいもの  Having no money was a blessing in disguise because he had to work hard and became very successful.
boost 増加,力添え  The fact that his English was understood in New York was an enormous boost to his confidence.
breadth 幅,広さ  Some academics are too narrow in their interests; they need more breadth.
breakdown 衰弱,故障  Tony had so many worries that he had a nervous breakdown.
breach (約束,契約の)違反  Exporting arms to Iraq would be a breach of America's sanctions against that country.
bribe わいろ  Children will do anything for a bribe, especially if the bribe consists of sweets.
bribery 贈収賄  The manager of the company was arrested for bribery; he had given money to the government official responsible for assigning the contract.
bulk 大きさ,大半  The bulk of his lecture was very boring; he just repeated the same things over and over again.
bulletin 公報,告示  Hourly bulletins were released about the state of the Prime Minister's health; people were anxious to hear about him.
bunch 一団  A bunch of kids was responsible for the damage to the fence.
burden 重荷,負担  In an English court, the burden of proof is on the prosecution, not the defense (A) /  defence (B).

*

calculation 計算  His calculation about how much time he would need to catch the train was completely wrong.
campaign (選挙などの)運動  There is a campaign to get rid of the American base in Okinawa.
cancellation 取消し  There was a plane cancellation so he missed the conference in Tokyo.
capability 能力  India and Pakistan now have a nuclear capability.
capacity 収容力,能力  Lisa has an immense capacity for learning vocabulary; she knows hundreds of words.
catastrophe 災難,破局  She felt her failure to pass the driving test was a catastrophe.
category 部門,範疇  She was unsure of her immigration category. The officer wanted to know whether she was visiting the USA for business or pleasure.
caution 用心  It is necessary to exercise caution when driving along icy roads.
ceiling 上限  When inflation is high, there is often a ceiling on wage increases.
celebration 賛美  His book was a celebration of the life of the author.
censure 非難,叱責  South Korea reacted badly to the censure of the International Monetary Fund.
certi゙cate 証(明)書  He received a certificate stating that he had passed the examination.
chaos 無秩序,混沌  Unless cars are restricted in cities, there will be traffic chaos in the future.
characteristic 特徴  A spirit of revenge was his main characteristic.
charity 慈善  “Charity begins at home.” In other words, you should help your own impoverished people before sending money abroad.
charm 魅力  Mrs. Grant had great charm; she was always polite and amusing.
chemistry 相性  Some people get on and some people don't; it's partly a matter of the chemistry between them.
chore 雑用,つらい仕事  Writing essays is often a terrible chore.
circulation 発行部数  With the advent of satellite news, newspapers now have a much smaller circulation.
citation 引用  Books referred to should be detailed in the list of citations at the end of the article.
clash 衝突  The professors were bitter enemies, and there was usually a clash between them in meetings.
classification 分類  He could not find the books as they had been shelved under the wrong classification.
clue 手がかり,糸口  Sally didn't have a clue where her keys were.
coincidence 一致  For once, there was a coincidence between their proposals.
collapse 倒壊,崩壊  Once the new evidence was considered, his argument was in a state of collapse.
collision 衝突  A collision can occur between people as well as cars.
combat 戦闘  He went on active combat with the army, fighting in a war with the enemy.
combination 組み合わせ  Martin was late for a combination of reasons.
commemoration 記念(式典),祝賀  There is a commemoration of those who died in two world wars every year in Britain.
commitment 言質,かかわり合い  Marriage is a lifelong commitment.
compensation 補償  He no longer had a job, but the compensation was in the amount of free time he now had.
competence 能力  A competence in English is useful if you are to travel abroad.
competition 競争  The examination system encourages competition rather than cooperation between students.
complaint 不平,不満  A serious complaint was made because the dentist seemed incompetent.
completion 完成,修了  Completion rates in some British universities are low; a number of students do not continue with the course.
complexity 複雑さ  The complexity of the language was such that Harold found it almost impossible to understand.
component 構成部分  Yellow, along with many other color (A) / colours (B), is a component of the rainbow.
composition 構成(要素)  Red and white corpuscles are part of the composition of the blood.
comprehension 理解  The scale of the disaster was beyond comprehension.
compression 圧縮  The difficulty of poetry is sometimes in the compression of the language.
compromise 妥協  A compromise is often necessary if negotiations are to be successful.
concentration 集中,濃度  Einstein's powers of concentration were phenomenal.
concept 概念  A triangle is a geometrical concept.
conception 概念,着想  Plato's conception of the triangle was that it was a pure idea.
condemnation 非難,糾弾  The United Nations issued a condemnation of war crimes in Kosovo.
confession 自白,告白  There was a written confession, but it had been extracted under duress.
confirmation 確認  One hundred people were thought to have died in the flooding, but there was no confirmation of this total.
confusion 混乱  The class room had been changed and there was much confusion about where the students were to go.
conscience 良心  Criminals sometimes confess because they have a guilty conscience.
consciousness 意識  People have consciousness, tables do not.
conservation 保護,保全  Forest conservation is urgent now that so many trees are being cut down.
consistency 一貫性  There is little consistency in the dollar-yen currency markets.
constitution 構成,体格,憲法  Britain has no written constitution.
consultation 相談,診察  When ill, you should have a consultation with a doctor.
consumption 消費  When consumption is higher than energy output, people put on weight.
contemplation 熟考,瞑想  Sunsets are often an object of quiet contemplation.
contempt 軽蔑  The book was held in contempt by critics because it was so bad.
contentment 満足  There are lots of stress factors in modern life; very few people have any kind of contentment.
context 文脈,前後関係  When a word is taken out of its context, it can be difficult to understand.
continuation 継続  There will be a continuation of the soap opera on Saturday.
contour 輪郭  Japanese mountains tend to have a curvaceous contour.
contradiction 矛盾  If a statement is true, then its opposite is a contradiction.
contribution 寄与,寄付,発言  In this class, you will need to make a contribution in English, not Japanese.
controversy 論争  There is a controversy about whether or not more women should be managers in Japanese companies.
convenience 好都合  For your convenience on this aircraft, there is a headset in your seat pocket.
convention 慣習  The convention in Japan is to use chopsticks for rice.
conversion 変換,改宗  His conversion to Catholicism took place in 1997.
conveyance 運搬  “Conveyance” is a rather old-fashioned word for any mode of transport, such as a car or a bicycle.
conviction 確信  It was John's absolute conviction, his firm belief, that he was in the right.
cooperation 協力  There was little cooperation between the rescue workers, so many people died.
coordination 調和,協力  The main difficulty was that there was insufficient coordination; one group had no idea what the other group was doing.
core 核心  The core of the global problem is the emission of industrial waste.
correction 修正,訂正  The Dow Jones index is moving down sharply; but this is a correction because of its being over-valued in the past.
correlation 相互関係  There is a correlation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.
correspondence 対応,文通,類似  Some say that there should be more of a correspondence between the crime and the punishment.
corruption 堕落,汚職  Corruption amongst government officials is rife.
countenance 顔つき  He had a sullen countenance; he always looked miserable.
counterpart 対応物  He was the manager of a bank; his counterpart in the supermarket, its manager, had a much lower salary.
courtesy 礼儀(正しさ)  In Britain, it is a courtesy for a man to hold open a door for a woman.
coverage 報道,取材  There was no coverage of the soccer game on Japanese television.
craft (特殊)技術  Pottery is an ancient craft.
crash 衝突,墜落,暴落  There was a stock market crash yesterday; stocks lost nearly half their value.
creation 創造,創作(品)  The restaurant had its own creation, a special vegetable dish.
credit 信用,名声  Though a woman was involved in the discovery of DNA, she received no credit for it.
crisis 危機  If North Korea attacks South Korea, there will be a world-wide crisis.
cruelty 残虐(行為)  Torture and cruelty are now against international law.
cultivation 耕作,修練  Rice cultivation is under threat in parts of Japan as more and more people eat bread.
curiosity 好奇心  Cats have a natural curiosity.
currency 流布,普及  His ideas were too peculiar to have a very wide currency.
curse 災い  Pollution is a curse of modern life.
cycle 周期  Japan is in a downward economic cycle at present.

*

debate 討論  There was a long debate about whether or not to abolish consumption tax.
decay 腐食,衰退  When factories close down, the area moves into a period of decay.
decency 品位,礼儀  Pornography is a threat to decency everywhere.
deception 欺瞞  Michael concealed the truth about his qualifications and was, therefore, guilty of deception.
declaration 宣言  The American Declaration of Independence was made in 1776.
decline 衰え  Industrial decline has been a recent feature of South Asia.
decoration 装飾,勲章  He received a decoration, a medal, for his bravery in the war.
decrease 減少  There has been a significant decrease in the rate of inflation in western countries.
decree 布告,法令  Dictators rule by decree; they simply announce new laws without consultation.
dedication 献身,専念  Dedication to duty is necessary for soldiers.
deduction 演繹  If all things that are mortal must die, and you are mortal, it follows by deduction that you must die.
defect 欠陥  A defect in the foundations of the building caused collapse.
deficiency 欠乏  Jane has a deficiency of vitamin B12; she is anemic (A) / anaemic (B).
definition 定義  There was an argument about the exact definition of the word “pusillanimous”.
delivery 配達,分娩  The delivery of the baby took place on time.
denial 否定  His denial of the crime was not accepted.
density 密度  The density of his argument was such that no one could comprehend it.
depression 不況,憂鬱  He suffered from depression because of losing his job.
destination 目的地  His final destination was Tokyo.
destiny 運命  It was his destiny to die young.
devotion 献身  His devotion to duty was exemplary.
diagnosis 診断  Cancer was the diagnosis.
dictation 書き取り  He understood little of the dictation and so wrote nothing.
digestion 消化  Bad digestion follows rapid eating.
dignity 威厳  The Head of State carried himself with dignity.
dilemma ジレンマ  Professor Jones was caught in a dilemma: he didn't know whether to go to the party or work. Both would be difficult.
dimension 寸法,次元,局面  He overlooked a crucial dimension of the problem.
diploma 免状,卒業証書  Having successfully passed the course, he received a diploma.
diplomacy 外交  Dr Henry Kissinger was an expert on international diplomacy.
disadvantage 不利な立場  He was much lighter in weight than the other wrestler; this was a significant disadvantage.
disagreement 不一致  John's ideas were quite different from Janet's; there was a big disagreement between them.
disappointment 失望  It was a disappointment to lose the match.
disapproval 不承知,非難  The teacher showed his disapproval when the student was late.
disaster 災害  Disaster struck Florida at noon when the hurricane hit the area.
discharge 排出,退院,解放  He was given a discharge from the hospital as he was now well.
discipline しつけ  Firm discipline is sometimes necessary in schools.
disclosure 開示  There was a disclosure, today, concerning bribes accepted by government officials.
discount 割引  After the team won the pennant, many stores offered a discount.
discretion 思慮分別,裁量  Whether or not to pass the student was entirely at the teacher's own discretion. No one else could tell him what to do.
discrimination 差別  There is discrimination against women all over the world.
disgust 嫌悪  There can be nothing but disgust at the fact that many rich countries make a lot of money out of sending arms to the developing world.
dismissal 解雇  Unfair dismissal can be challenged in the courts in the UK.
disorder 混乱  Disorder can be the result of a party.
dispatch 急送  The dispatch from headquarters was received too late by the army officer.
disposal 処分  Safe disposal is necessary for discharged batteries.
disposition 性質,気質  Professor Schmidt has a quiet disposition.
dispute 論争  Workers who have a dispute with the management sometimes go on strike.
dissatisfaction 不満  Job dissatisfaction is a major cause of depression.
distortion 歪曲  The evidence was compromised because it amounted to a distortion of the facts.
distress 悩み  The earthquake victim was in considerable distress.
distribution 分配,分布  The distribution of food during the Siberian winter is a big problem there.
disturbance 妨害,不安,騒乱  The police were called to the neighborhood (A) / neighbourhood (B) disturbance.
divorce 離婚  The unhappy couple eventually sought a divorce.
doctrine (政策等での)主義  One doctrine of the Christian Church is that of the soul's immortality.
donation 寄付  Blood donation is important for hospitals.
duration (持続)期間  The duration of the concert was two hours.

*

echo 反響  Caves often have an echo.
economy 節約,経済  The American economy is strong just now.
efficiency 能率  Efficiency can be defined as the maximum output being achieved from the minimum input.
element 要素  Sarcasm was only one element of his personality; there were times when he could be highly considerate of others.
elimination 除去  Disease elimination is one of UNESCO's main aims.
emphasis 強調  Although some Japanese can be spoken in class, the main emphasis is on English.
employment 雇用  Secure employment is the goal of graduates; nothing is more worrying than losing one's job.
encounter 遭遇  I hadn't seen John for years before our brief encounter in New York. He had to rush off to a business meeting.
encouragement 奨励  There is always plenty of encouragement from the teacher in our English classes.
endeavor (A) / endeavour (B) 努力,試み  Landing on the moon was the most notable endeavor of the 1960's.
endurance 忍耐  Climbing Mount Everest is a feat of great endurance.
enjoyment 楽しみ  Sleep is the great enjoyment of life.
enthusiasm 熱心  His enthusiasm was infectious; everyone felt affected by it.
equality 平等  The equality of all is the central tenet of the American Constitution.
equation 等式,均衡  There is no natural equation between wealth and happiness.
equivalence 同等  There was an equivalence of mood between them: both felt happy at the thought of the coming vacation.
era 時代,年代  For many, the arrival of the year 2000 marked the end of one era and the beginning of another.
essence 本質,真髄  The essence of the matter is quite simple: however you try to dress it up, you have not told the truth.
esteem 尊敬  The writer Soseki is held in high esteem.
estimation (価値)判断,見積り  His personal estimation of Soseki was that his writing was over-rated.
evaluation 評価  The students were asked to supply an evaluation of the course. They agreed that on the whole, it was a highly valuable one and that they had learned much from it.
evaporation 蒸発  Whenever Ann was under pressure, her thoughts, like water in hot temperatures, were subject to evaporation.
evolution 進化,発展  In some ways evolution, where things change gradually, is the opposite of revolution, or sudden change.
exaggeration 誇張  It is an exaggeration to say “I'm starving” after missing lunch.
excess 超過  Drinking in excess of the legal limit is dangerous for drivers.
exclamation 叫び  By way of exclamation, he simply howled.
exclusion 排除  Children who misbehave in school are subject to exclusion.
execution 処刑,(法律などの)実施  Designing the plan was easy; but putting it into practice, seeing it into execution, was very difficult.
exhaustion 疲労(困憊)  Exhaustion is common after a long semester.
exhibition 展覧,見せること  Japanese feelings are rarely on exhibition; Americans are much more likely to show how they feel.
expansion 拡張  There will be no more salary increases without an expansion in productivity.
expedition 探検  Any expedition to the Himalayas is hazardous and expensive.
expenditure 支出  Unless the company could reduce its expenditure, it would have to go bankrupt.
experiment 実験  Many Russians see themselves as the victims of a political experiment.
exploration 探検  The exploration of Africa was a fascination in the nineteenth century.
explosion 爆発,急増  There has been an explosion in the development of fast-food outlets in Japan.
export 輸出  The export of arms from the USA to Iraq is forbidden.
exposure 暴露,露出  Too much exposure to the sun is dangerous.
eyesight 視力  The eyesight tends to weaken in middle age.

* 

facility 設備 Every conceivable facility has been made available at this hotel to make your stay comfortable.
faculty 能力,機能  His hearing faculty was greatly diminished in old age.
familiarity 親しみ,よく知っていること  As Professor Smith had little familiarity with London, he easily lost his way there.
fancy 空想,好むこと  His fancy for an ice-cream was especially strong in the hot weather.
fantasy 空想  Brian's fantasy was that of being able to live forever.
fare (乗物の)運賃  The fare for the taxi journey was ten dollars.
fascination 魅惑  His fascination for stamp collection gradually became an obsession.
fatigue 疲労  Regular sleep is necessary if fatigue is to be avoided.
feature 特徴,呼び物  The new railway station is a feature of Kyoto.
fee 報酬  The fee for Mrs. Touchett's legal representation was unbelievably high.
fellowship 連帯感,親睦  At his retirement party, he enjoyed the fellowship of his colleagues.
finance 財政  The theory and practice of finance was not the manager's strong point; this is why his company did so badly.
fixture 競技会  The soccer fixture had to be canceled (A) / cancelled (B) because of bad weather.
flock 群れ  The flock of sheep huddled together during the storm.
fluency 流暢さ  The professor's fluency in English was high because he had spent many years studying and practicing (A) / practising (B).
fluid 流体(気体と液体)  Water is a fluid.
flush どっと流れること  A flush of people left the restaurant as it closed.
forecast 予報  The forecast was for heavy rain.
formation 構成  The formation of clouds known as ‘cumulus’usually indicates rain.
formula   What is the chemical formula for water?
formulation 定式化  The formulation of Einstein's (→ 16.4.3.1.) Theory of Relativity was a long process.
foundation 設立,基礎  Reason is the foundation of all knowledge.
fragment 断片  Part of a meteorite consisting of a pre-solar system fragment hit a building recently in Kobe.
framework 枠組み  The framework of an agreement was in place, but much work on the details remained.
freight 貨物(輸送)  The freight of soy beans from the USA was badly damaged by the storm.
frequency 頻度  The word ‘and’has a high frequency in English, whereas ‘zeugma’has a much lower frequency.
friction 摩擦  Water friction erodes rocks.
fright 恐怖  He had the fright of his life when the ghost appeared.
fringe 縁,周辺  On the fringe of the meeting, some people disagreed with the proposals.
frustration 挫折,欲求不満  Belinda's frustration was great because she had lots of plans for a vacation but no money.
fulfil(l)ment 履行,実現  His successful graduation was the fulfil(l)ment of all his dreams.
fury 憤激  There is a saying in English that ‘hell has no fury like a woman's love.'
fuss 大騒ぎ  Men, unlike women, often create a lot of fuss when they have the slightest illness.

*

generosity 寛大  When it came to helping friends in trouble, his generosity knew no bounds.
gentleness 優しさ  Gentleness is supposed to be a feminine characteristic, rather than a masculine.
glimpse ひと目見ること  He caught a glimpse of the solar eclipse, but the sunlight was too intense for safety.
glory 栄光  The glory that comes from military success is now out of fashion.
grace 優美  Greek temples have grace and beauty.
gratitude 感謝(の気持ち)  His gratitude for all the help he had received knew no bounds.
gravity 重力,重大さ  No one could deny the gravity of the situation; unless a solution to the problem could be found, there was no telling how bad things would be.
greed 貪欲  Human greed can be insatiable.
grief 悲しみ  Grief after a family bereavement is quite natural.

*

hardship 困難  There was much hardship during the drought in Ethiopia.
haste 急ぐこと  ‘More haste, less speed’is an English proverb.
hatred 憎しみ  The Ku Klux Klan is an organization in America which fosters hatred for non-whites.
hazard 危険,冒険  Smoking as the plane is taking off is a fire hazard.
herd 群れ  The herd of wild bulls went on the rampage.
heritage 遺産  The temples and shrines of Japan are an important part of the world's heritage.
hesitation ためらい,躊躇  For pilots in critical situations, even the slightest hesitation can be fatal.
hindrance 妨害,障害  A territorial dispute is the main hindrance to a peace treaty between Japan and Russia.
horror 恐怖  The journalist's horror at the carnage of the war was intense.
hostage 人質  The hijacker took the passenger as a hostage; he said that he would kill him unless his demands were met.
hostility 敵意  In every country, there is a certain hostility towards foreigners.
housekeeping 家事,家計  Good housekeeping is necessary if a husband and wife are to make ends meet.
housework 家事  Few people enjoy cleaning; in fact, it is mostly women who do the housework.
housing 住宅(の供給)  Japan has a housing problem because there is so little space in the country.
humanity 人類,人間性  The judge was asked to show humanity by commuting the death sentence to life imprisonment.
humidity 湿度  Heat is a particular problem when there is a high level of humidity.
humility 謙遜  In general, humility is a more endearing characteristic than arrogance.
hypocrisy 偽善  One example of hypocrisy is that of a teacher who berates his students for being late but rarely turns up on time himself.

*

identity 身元,正体  The identity of the murderer was unknown.
idol 偶像  Paul McCartney was a pop idol in the 1960's.
ignorance 無知,無教養  Ignorance, the general lack of decent education, is one of the main enemies of the undeveloped world.
illusion 幻想  His illusion was that he could always be happy.
illustration 挿絵,説明  His lecture was difficult because he found no way of giving an illustration of his main point.
imitation 模倣(物)  It was not a real Van Gogh (→ 16.1.6.1.), merely an imitation.
implication 含み,含意  It took some time to realize that the implication of Hitler's (→ 16.1.3.1.) hatred for the Jews would be their mass extermination.
import 輸入(品)  Oil is a major import in Japan as there are very few natural resources of energy there.
inability できないこと,無力  His failure to complete the task was owing to inability rather than unwillingness.
inclination 意向,傾向  He was able to solve the problem, but he had no inclination to do so.
inclusion 含むこと  Dr Walder's inclusion in the invitation was an unpleasant surprise to him.
increase 増加  The world's population continues to grow, but the rate of increase is slowing.
indication 印,指示  Teachers said that there was no indication that the pupil had violent tendencies; his attack on fellow students had come out of the blue.
indifference 無関心  Whether it was a Monday or a Tuesday was a matter of indifference to the employee; he was bored by his job every day of the week.
infection 感染  You have a bad infection; I shall prescribe antibiotics.
ingredient 成分,要素  The principal ingredient of custard is milk.
inheritance 遺産  The inheritance of wealth is heavily taxed both in the UK and in Japan.
initiative 主導権,創意  Some people believe that the Japanese education system stifles initiative.
injustice 不公正  It is often contended that injustice is a feature of totalitarian systems.
innocence 無罪  The innocence or guilt of the criminal would be decided by the court on the basis of the evidence.
innovation 革新  Desk-top computers have been a vital innovation in the development of the modern world.
inquiry 問合せ,調査  There would be an inquiry into the airport extension.
insight 洞察力  Freud (→ 16.2.3.1.) was a man of great insight, although his ideas are much contested now.
insistence 強要,主張  Since the war, Japan's insistence has been on the need to limit, or abolish, nuclear weapons.
inspection 検査  Teaching, in the UK and elsewhere, is subject to regular inspection by government departments.
installation 取付け  Andy had to wait a long time for the installation of his new computer system.
instinct 本能  Humankind's instinct is for self-preservation.
insult 侮辱  The asking of personal questions by a complete stranger is a great insult in the UK.
intake 摂取(量),受入れ人員  The school had to close because its intake of students was too low.
integration 融合,統一  Single-sex education used to be the norm in many Cambridge Colleges; these days, there is an integration of men and women in all but a few of them.
intensity 強烈さ  Firefighters could not rescue the inhabitants of the building because of the intensity of the heat.
intention 意図  His intention was to visit the USA as soon as possible.
interference 干渉  His unwarranted interference, his failure to mind his own business, was not welcome.
interpretation 解釈  Poems are subject to many different interpretations.
interruption 中断,妨害  The interruption of lectures by students asking questions is not permitted in Cambridge.
intervention 仲裁,介入  Market intervention is one of the means by which currency exchange rates can be regulated.
intrusion 侵害,侵入  As Professor Waite had not been invited, his presence at the meeting was regarded as an intrusion.
intuition 直感,直観  Knowledge by intuition involves its direct apprehension; it is not mediated by any kind of rational process.
invasion 侵略  The immigration official's asking of personal questions was regarded by the traveler (A) / traveller (B) as an invasion of his privacy.
investment 投資  Success is the yield for the heavy investment of time in any project.
irony 皮肉  There was irony in his comment on how good the weather was, for it was pouring down with rain.
issue 問題,発行  The main issue in Japan, in the future, is that of its ag(e)ing population.
itch かゆみ,切望  She had a great itch to know what the cause of the disagreement between the two friends was.

*

jam 混雑  It's better to avoid railway stations during the rush hour as there is such a jam of people.
jealousy 嫉妬  Tom's jealousy was great when he saw his girlfriend in a bar with another man.
jet 噴射,噴流  Planes fly cushioned on a jet stream produced by their engines.
justification 正当化,正当な理由  There is never any justification for rudeness, even though it is often understandable.

*

landing 着陸  The plane's landing was far from smooth.
landscape 景色  The English landscape, consisting mostly of flat land without mountains, is very different from that of Japan.
latitude 緯度,許容度  These are the rules within which you have to operate; but there is some latitude; that is to say, you are free to use your own discretion from time to time.
laughter 笑い  Laughter is good for the lungs.
layer   The cake was in four layers: it alternated between chocolate and cream.
leak 漏れ  The information leak was deplored by the government.
learning 学問  The English poet Alexander Pope wrote that ‘a little learning is a dangerous thing'; knowing a little about something can be worse than knowing nothing at all.
leave 休暇  The professor's application for research leave was refused as there was a shortage of teachers to take his classes.
legend 伝説  The Bible tells us that the world was created in six days; but this is only a legend.
legislation (制定された)法律  The Queen has to approve all legislation, all new laws, in the UK.
legislature 立法府  The House of Commons is the state legislature in the UK; it alone has the power to make laws.
liberation 解放  There is a campaign to secure the liberation of animals kept in zoos.
lifetime 生涯  It is unlikely that there will be a landing on Mars during the lifetime of this generation.
likelihood 見込み,公算  There is a likelihood that there will be a landing on Mars during the next generation.
limitation 限定,限界  The student's main limitation was her complete inability to concentrate for longer than five minutes at a time.
liquid 液体  Water is a liquid.
livelihood 暮らし,生計  When the breadwinner dies, a family always loses its principal means of securing a livelihood.
location 所在地  Fears about the politician's safety meant that his exact location was a secret.
logic 論理(学)  Logic is the science of argument, or the analysis of what follows from what and why.
longing 切望  When studying in the USA, the Japanese student's longing was for sashimi and pachinko.
loyalty 忠誠  A boss cannot buy loyalty, he has to earn it by generating respect among his workforce.
luxury ぜいたく  Sugar used to be a luxury; now people are dying from eating too much of it.

*

magnitude 大きさ  The magnitude of the problem was such that it was completely beyond his grasp.
maintenance 維持,保全  The maintenance of law and order is the responsibility of the police.
majority 大多数  The majority of people are law-abiding.
manifestation 表明  There was a manifestation of great sorrow at his funeral.
mankind 人類  The future of mankind is threatened by global warming.
manufacture 製造  The manufacture of high quality paper is an intricate process.
masterpiece 傑作  The painting was exquisite; it was a masterpiece.
mastery 制御,熟達  Mastery of a musical instrument can take long years of practice.
maturity 成熟  The wine lacked maturity and had to be drunk later.
mechanism 機構,仕組み  Fundamentally, the heart is a pumping mechanism.
mercy 慈悲,あわれみ  Mercy and justice are not the same thing; justice has to be tempered by mercy.
merit 長所,功績  A meritocracy is a system where people are appointed on merit, according to their proven ability.
mess 乱雑,散らかり  Young children make a mess when eating.
method 方法  There is an easy method for cooking rice: just put it in a rice cooker.
methodology 方法論  His method of writing history was unclear not least because he had no methodology, or sense of his method.
minority 少数(派)  Foreigners are in the minority in Japan.
misery みじめさ  Poverty causes misery.
misfortune 不運  His life was full of misfortune: first his wife died young, and then he lost all his money gambling.
mission 使命  The mission of early Christian visitors to Japan was to convert the Japanese.
misunderstanding 誤解  Most rows occur as a result of a misunderstanding.
mode 様式  The telephone was in fax mode; it was unable to take incoming calls.
modesty 謙遜  The professor's natural modesty made him embarrassed when praised.
moisture 湿気  In humid weather, the air is heavy with moisture.
monarchy 君主政体  The UK is a monarchy; its Head of State is a queen.
monopoly 独占  Until its division and privatization, JR had a monopoly over Shinkansen routes.
morale 士気,勤労意欲  Patricia's morale was low because of a sequence of failures.
morality 道徳  Morality, what is right and wrong, should be taught by parents rather than teachers.
motivation 動機付け  Student motivation is low when a lesson seems pointless.
multiplication 増殖,掛け算  The process of multiplication has been taken over by calculators.
multitude 多数  The reasons were multitude why he couldn't complete the homework on time.

*

navigation 航行  Before the compass, navigation took place by means of the stars.
negotiation 交渉  The negotiation over East Timor's independence has been fraught with difficulties.
notion 考え,観念  He had a notion that the best way of losing weight was to eat nothing but rice; but he was always full of silly ideas.
nuisance 迷惑(な行為)  Smoking in public is a nuisance.

*

oath 誓い  Incoming presidents have to swear an oath of allegiance to the state.
obedience 服従,従順  Obedience to the law is necessary for a peaceful society.
objection 異論,反論  There was an objection to the resolution, so it was not passed.
obligation 義務  In the UK, sons and daughters sometimes don't feel an obligation to look after their aged parents.
oblivion 忘却  Some people believe in life after death; others regard death as complete oblivion.
observance 遵守  One traditional observance of the Church of England is that of regarding Sunday as a day of rest.
obstacle 障害(物)  Tricia wanted to study in America; the obstacle to her plans was that she had very little money.
occupation 占領,職業  His occupation as a bank clerk was not very lucrative.
occurrence 発生  Headaches were a regular occurrence for Michael: he had at least one a week.
odds 見込み,配当率  The odds against that particular horse winning the race were very high.
omission 省略,遺漏  The omission of the student's name from the class list was the fault of the professor.
opponent 相手,敵  The sumo wrestler's opponent was much heavier than he was.
opposition 反対  There was no opposition to the resolution; it was passed unanimously.
oppression 圧迫  Ethnic minorities are the victims of oppression in some countries.
orbit 軌道(の一周)  The orbit of the earth around the sun takes a year.
organization 組織(化)  The organization known as ‘Doctors without Borders’won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1999.
orientation 方向付け,オリエンテーション  New students will have a campus orientation next week.
originality 独創力  Shakespeare was a playwright of great originality.
ornament 装飾,飾り  The cross, a religious symbol in the West, is often worn simply as an ornament in Japan.
outbreak 突発,発生  The flu outbreak resulted in many deaths.
outcome 結果  The outcome of the negotiations would not be known for a week or so.
outline 輪郭  Before writing your essay, produce an outline of its main points.
outrage 暴行,激怒  There is outrage at the amount of bribery in government circles.
overlap 重なり  There was an overlap between last year's class and this; students found themselves learning the same thing again.
overthrow (政権などの)転覆  The overthrow of the government was a complete surprise; no one had expected the army to take over.

*

paradox 逆説  It is a paradox that there can be less freedom of choice in a so-called democracy than in some dictatorships.
participation 参加  Student participation is vital in this class; the only way to improve your English is to use it.
partnership 協力(関係)  The Channel Tunnel was constructed by a public (government) and private partnership.
passion 熱情  His passion for the woman, even though he was already married, was intense.
penalty (刑)罰  The penalty for smoking on public transport in London is a fine.
penetration 浸透,貫通  The penetration of the skull is necessary for brain surgery.
percentage 割合  Only a small percentage of people, around 3 in a hundred, lost money when the bank collapsed.
perception 知覚(作用)  The doctor had an acute perception of the patient's psychological problems.
perfection 完成,完璧さ  If you aim for perfection, you'll never finish anything.
persecution 迫害  Throughout history, Jewish people have been the victims of persecution.
persistence 固執,持続  The persistence of toothache, which had lasted for over a week, forced him to go to the dentist.
persuasion 説得,信念,信仰  He was of no religious persuasion; he was completely non-religious.
phase 側面,段階  The first phase of the subway construction is the digging of big holes all over the city; after that the tunneling, the second phase, can begin.
phenomenon 現象  The UFO phenomenon comes and goes according to the fashion.
plea 嘆願  His plea was “not guilty”.
politeness 礼儀正しさ  Politeness is just as important in the UK as in Japan; only the conventions are different.
poll 投票  The opinion poll suggested an easy victory for the incumbent president.
pollution 汚染  Levels of air pollution are generally higher in the city than in the country.
popularity 人気  As he increased taxes, the politician's popularity declined.
portion 部分,分け前  The tourist was surprised at how small a portion of food he got in the restaurant.
pose 姿勢,見せかけ  Everyone could see through his pose as a sincere person.
posture 姿勢  A bent posture in front of a computer monitor is bad for the back.
potentiality 潜在能力  After his injury, John doesn't walk often; but he has the potentiality, if limited.
precaution 用心  Please fasten your seat belts as a precaution against sudden turbulence.
precision 正確さ  The manufacturing of computer components requires great precision.
prediction 予言  The prediction is that the birth-rate will continue to decline in Japan.
preference より好むこと  His preference was for beer rather than wine.
prejudice 偏見  He has a strong prejudice against Koreans because he doesn't like the smell of their food.
preliminary 予備段階  As a preliminary to teaching English, it is necessary to know the language very well.
prescription 処方  Antibiotics are available only on prescription.
presentation 提示,提案  His presentation at the meeting was well received.
preservation 保存,保持  Salt was introduced into food for the purpose of preservation.
prestige 名声  Expensive hotels have more prestige than cheaper ones.
presumption 推定,憶測  In the UK, the presumption is that a defendant is innocent unless the court can prove otherwise.
pretense 見せかけ  Mark seemed kind and generous; but it was all a pretense, a show.
prevention 防止,予防  ‘Prevention is better than a cure’is a well known English expression.
privilege 特権  Prisoners who behave themselves are entitled to the privilege of better food.
probability 見込み,公算  The probability of a complete hydraulic failure on a plane is as low as one in five billion.
procedure 手続き  The safety procedure was ignored.
proclamation 宣言  In the past, laws could be made by royal proclamation in England.
prohibition 禁止  The prohibition against under-age drinking should be strengthened.
proportion 割合  A small proportion of shoppers believe that all shops should be open 24 hours a day.
proposition 提案,計画  The business folded because it was not a viable proposition.
prosecution 起訴,告発  The prosecution went ahead despite the flimsy evidence.
prosperity 繁栄  National prosperity is the goal of all countries.
provision 用意  There was an urgent need for the provision of water after the earthquake.
publicity 一般に知られること  Since the greater availability of newspapers, publicity of even the most trivial details of the lives of famous people has become more widespread.
punishment 処罰  When crimes go without punishment, wrongdoing is encouraged.
purity 純粋さ  Butane gas has to have a high level of purity.
pursuit 追跡,追求  The pursuit of wealth for its own sake is futile.

*

qualification 資格  A PhD has become an essential qualification for university teaching in the West.
quality   This rice is of too low a quality for human consumption.
quantity   There is an enormous quantity of writing, but its quality is very low.
quietness 静けさ,平穏  At night time, there is quietness even in a big city.
quotation 引用  His essay contained a quotation from another professor, but this was not acknowledged.

*

radiation 放射(線)  High levels of radiation resulted from the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
rage 激怒  He was more than angry, he was in a rage.
raid 襲撃  The raid on the bank was foiled by security officers.
rapture 忘我,有頂天  Maggie was in a rapture after hearing the music.
ratio 比率  Efficiency can be defined in terms of a ratio between input and output: the less of the former, and the more of the latter, the more efficient is the system.
realization 実現  Visiting New York was the realization of a lifelong dream.
realm 領域  In some areas, other researchers had greater skills; but in the realm of mathematics, the professor was without equal.
reasoning 推論,論理的思考  Her reasoning was all wrong; but then, she had never been very good at thinking things through.
rebellion 謀反,暴動  The Meiji Restoration was a consequence of a successful rebellion against the Shogun.
recall 想起,思い起こすこと  Alcohol can slow down the speed of recall and result in an impairment of the short-term memory.
recollection 思い出すこと  His recollection of the events of the evening was dimmed by the amount of beer he had consumed.
reconciliation 和解,調停  There was no possibility of a reconciliation between the two enemies.
reconstruction 再建  Much reconstruction had to be undertaken in Kobe after the earthquake.
reduction 減らすこと  The workers went on strike because of a pay reduction.
refinement 精練  The professor's solution to the problem was a good one; but his assistant came up with a refinement that made it even better.
reflection 熟慮,反省  There is very little time for reflection during the working week. Weekends can be a good time for thinking about things.
refusal 拒絶  He met the request with an absolute refusal.
regime 政権,体制  The political regime was a dictatorship, not a democracy.
registration 登録  Student registration is on the first day of the academic year.
regulation 規制  This class has one simple regulation: sleeping is not permitted at any time.
rejection 拒絶  His rejection of the offer of help was no surprise given his pride.
remembrance 記憶  At the ceremony, they stood in remembrance of those who had lost their lives in the war.
removal 除去  The removal of impurities in the water takes place at processing plants.
reorganization 再編成  If companies are to survive, radical reorganization has to take place.
repetition 反復  The repetition of similar phrases can help in the learning of a language.
replacement 取り替え  A replacement was ordered for the malfunctioning computer.
representation 表示,陳述,説明  The views of ordinary people often have little representation.
reproach 非難  A politician should be beyond reproach if he is to retain the respect of his electorate.
reproduction 再生,再現  The antique furniture was not the real thing, it was a modern reproduction.
requirement 必要なもの  A passing score in the entrance examination is a requirement for anyone who wants to study at Kyushu University.
resemblance 類似  There was a strong resemblance between father and son; in particular, they both had similar noses.
resentment 憤慨  English people believe in bringing disputes out into the open in order to prevent the build-up of resentment.
resignation 辞任  He was grossly incompetent, so his resignation came as no surprise.
resonance 反響  The quality of the sound produced by a violin depends, in part, on the resonance of its wood.
restoration 復旧  The restoration of the painting, after it had been vandalized, was a painstaking process.
restraint 抑制  Tim has no restraint; he simply says what comes into his head when it pleases him.
restriction 制約  Young children are a great restriction for parents.
retirement 退職  Retirement from work has to be planned carefully if boredom and depression are to be avoided.
retreat 退却(地)  Home was his great retreat; no one would bother him there.
revelation 暴露,発覚,新事実  What other people thought about him was a great revelation to Jason.
revision 改訂  After careful revision, the book was eventually accepted by a publisher.
revival 復興  After the Berlin Wall came down, there was a revival of ethnic conflict in Eastern Europe.
ritual 儀式  The washing of the hands before a meal is the survival of a religious ritual.
robbery 強奪  No one had yet been apprehended for the bank robbery.
rotation 回転,交替  The rotation of four distinct seasons is one of Japan's distinctive features.

*

salvation 救い  His wife's belief in the value of his work was the scientist's salvation.
sanction 認可,制裁  There is a USA sanction against the exporting of super-computer technology to China.
scope 範囲,余地  Although his English is good, there is quite a lot of scope for improvement.
scrutiny 精査  The office subjected his passport to careful scrutiny; they needed to check which countries he had visited during his research leave.
seduction 誘惑  The accused insisted that sex took place only after seduction; his alleged victim claimed that it was rape.
segregation 隔離  During the apartheid era in South Africa, there was a segregation between whites and ‘coloreds (A) / coloureds (B)’on public transport and elsewhere.
self-respect 自尊心  Without self-respect, without taking pride in one's self, there can be no respect for others.
sensibility 感覚(力),感性  He had only a dull sensibility: he liked things only moderately and he had no capacity for really hating something.
separation 分離  What he disliked most on trips abroad was the separation from his dog.
sequence 順序,連続  In cooking, the sequence of activities is important: if some dishes are ready before others, this can be a problem.
session 開会(していること)  The British Parliament is not in session in August.
shortage 不足  After a prolonged shortage of rain, there is usually a drought.
similarity 類似  The main similarity between Shakespeare and the Greek playwright Sophocles is that they both wrote tragedies.
simplicity 単純さ  Simplicity of expression is often an aid to good communication.
slavery 奴隷の身分,奴隷制度  Slavery was the main cause of the American Civil War.
solitude 孤独  Some people like solitude, others prefer plenty of company.
sorrow 悲しみ  Mrs. Trevellion felt much sorrow when her cat died.
sovereign 主権者,統治者  In the past, the husband was always regarded as sovereign over his wife in England.
sovereignty 主権  These days, few people would argue that a husband should have any sovereignty over his wife.
species  (生物学上の)種  Oak is a species of wood.
spectacle 壮観,見世物  Fireworks can be a marvelous (A) / marvellous (B) spectacle.
speculation 憶測,投機  Currency speculation can be extremely damaging to a nation's economy.
splendor (A) / splendour (B) 輝き,みごとさ  The royal banquet was an occasion of great splendor.
stability 安定性  It is believed in some quarters that without controls on currency speculation, there can be no financial stability.
stack 堆積  The stack of books was too high and toppled over.
standing 立場,地位  His standing in the community was high because of all his charitable work.
standpoint 見地  He could only see the argument from his own standpoint.
statistics 統計  Statistics cannot be trusted; numbers can be made to mean anything.
stimulation 刺激する(される)こと  He was bored; he wanted some kind of stimulation.
stimulus 刺激  He always found conversation a good stimulus.
strategy (戦い全体における)戦略  His strategy for overcoming boredom was to seek the stimulus of good conversation.
substance 物質,内容,中身  There was little substance to his argument; it was full of superficial assumptions.
substitution 代理  The substitution of nuclear energy by other sources is becoming more and more urgent.
superiority 優越  It is difficult to dispute the superiority of wheatgerm as a good supply of vitamin B6.
supervision 監督,指導  A successful PhD depends on its conscientious supervision.
supplement 補足(物)  In general, a vitamin supplement is not as good as consuming the food in which it occurs naturally.
supposition 推測  He had no grounds for his views; they were merely suppositions on his part.
suppression 抑圧  Democracy thrives on organized opposition, not its suppression.
surrender 降伏  With no prospect of victory, there was little alternative but to surrender.
survey 調査  No one knew what people really wanted as there had never been a survey of public opinion.
suspicion 疑い  He was under suspicion, but there was no proof that he had stolen the money.
sympathy 共感  He felt sympathy for the family after their bereavement.
symptom 兆候,症状  Anemia (A) / Anaemia (B) is one symptom of an unhealthy diet.

*

tactics (個々の戦いにおける)戦術  Good tactics can win a battle here and there, but the overall strategy is what counts when it comes to winning the war.
task 職務,作業  Learning vocabulary is an important task in acquiring language fluency.
technique 手法,技術  A pianist can develop his or her technique only through practice.
temper 気性,機嫌  A lack of sleep can result in a bad temper.
temptation 誘惑  Jane found it difficult to resist the temptation of cakes.
testimony 証言  He gave testimony in the witness box at the trial.
throng 群衆  On Saturdays, there is usually a throng of people shopping in the department store.
token   The Emperor was presented with a gift as a token of friendship between the two countries.
torture 拷問  Torture has now been outlawed.
tragedy 悲劇  A play that is a tragedy has an unhappy ending whereas a comedy ends happily.
transformation 変形,変容  The modern transformation of London mostly took place after the war.
transition 移行  The transition from school to university can be a difficult one.
transmission 伝達,伝送  Marconi conducted the first successful radio transmission between Britain and America.
treatment 待遇,治療,処理  Without careful treatment, it is against international law to discharge sewage into the sea.
tribute 賛辞  After the actor's death, his closest friend paid tribute to him.
triumph 大勝利(の喜び)  She won a gold medal at the Olympic Games; it was a triumph for her.
tyranny 専制政治  If ordinary people cannot have their say in government, tyranny is the result.

*

uncertainty 不確実(性)  There was some uncertainty about whether or not Sam would turn up to the party.
unconsciousness 無意識  He was in a coma, a state of unconsciousness, after the accident.
unemployment 失業  As companies continue to shed jobs in Japan, unemployment will rise.
unity 統一(性)  National unity is important when a country is facing difficulties.
utility 有用性  If a university is to have any utility, it must produce students who will work well in industry.

*

validity 妥当(性)  His appeal to the court was held to lack validity and was not allowed.
variation 変化  As a variation from his usual routine, he had udon for lunch rather than soba.
version  ...   The latest version of the software was full of bugs.
vice 悪徳,悪習  Julie's only vice was her liking for sweets.
vicinity 近隣  The wallet had been lost within the vicinity of the supermarket.
viewpoint 観点  His viewpoint was limited because he had little experience of the problem being considered.
vigor 活力  Mrs. Cranbrook's illness had deprived her of all her vigor (A) / vigour (B).
violation 違反  He was arrested for a violation of the traffic regulations.
vocation 職業,使命  His vocation in life was to help others.

*

welfare 福祉  The UK has a well developed welfare system.
well-being 幸福,福利  The well-being of his patients is a doctor's primary concern.
width 幅,広さ  The width of the road varied.
wit 機知  His conversation was always full of wit, of an intellectual kind of humor (A) / humour (B).
wreck 残骸,廃人  He was a complete wreck after his wife died.

 

11.3.  抽象動詞 (Abstract Verbs)

abandon (見)捨てる,断念する  He would abandon the meeting after two hours.
abolish 廃止する  “I shall abolish slavery,” said Abraham Lincoln.
absorb 吸収する,理解する  Please absorb the information.
abuse 乱用する  People who abuse alcohol often have a short life.
accelerate 速める  Do not accelerate as you become tired, otherwise the audience will not be able to understand your English.
accommodate 収容する,理解する  I can accommodate two guests overnight.
accomplish 達成する,成し遂げる  He said that he could accomplish the task if sufficient help were available from others.
accumulate 蓄積する  To accumulate knowledge for its own sake is a waste of time.
accustom 慣れさせる  The professor would accustom himself to living in London after a few months.
acknowledge 認める  I acknowledge that I was wrong.
acquaint 知合いにさせる,熟知させる  Please acquaint yourselves with the safety procedures.
acquire 得る,獲得する  “You acquire your native language but learn another,” said the professor.
adapt 改造する,適応させる  Please adapt this test to the needs of your students.
adhere 固執する,くっつく  Glue must be applied if you want the picture to adhere to the wall.
adjust 調整する  He tried to adjust his eyes to the bright light.
administer 管理・運営する,(薬を)服用させる  The nurse wanted to administer the drugs every four hours.
admire 感嘆する  I admire her for all kinds of reasons, not least for her tenacity.
adore あこがれる  I simply adore Rome.
affiliate 加入させる  In London, you can affiliate yourself to various clubs.
allot 割り当てる  It was necessary to allot ground floor rooms to tourists with walking difficulties.
alternate 交替する  In autumn, the days alternate between being warm and cool.
amaze 驚嘆させる  It is easy to amaze young children; they can become confused and excited about the smallest thing.
amend 改正する  Only the Supreme Court can amend the American Constitution.
anticipate 予期する  Politicians anticipate a gradual recovery in the Japanese economy.
approve 是認する  The purpose of the committee is to approve the budget.
arouse 巻き起こす  By refusing to answer questions, criminals can only arouse further suspicion.
assert 断言する,主張する  Women need to assert their rights if they are to resist the domination of men.
assess 査定する  In order to assess the seriousness of his condition, it was necessary to X-ray his chest.
assume 仮定する  Many people assume that Japanese-Americans, because they look Japanese, can speak Japanese.
assure 保証する  It is taking some time to assure passengers that railway tunnels are safe in Japan.
attach 付ける  Please attach your report to the agenda for next week's meeting.
attain 達成する  To attain success at the Olympics, perhaps to win a gold medal, is a high honour.
attribute  ~のせいにする,性質があると考える  Because Americans tend to be quite big, people tend to attribute aggression to them.
authorize 公認する  The immigration officials did not authorize his entry.

*

beckon (身振りで)招く  Sunny mornings beckon people onto the beach.
bet 賭ける  I bet you a hundred dollars that you're wrong.
betray 裏切る  Judas was willing to betray Christ for thirty pieces of silver.
bless 祝福する  God bless the Queen.
boast 自慢する  To boast of victory in advance is to make yourself a hostage to fortune.
boost 増加する,高める  To boost the economy, the Japanese government has announced a sequence of public spending packages.
bore うんざりさせる  Do I bore you? Then I'll stop talking.
broaden 広げる  Travel can broaden one's outlook on the world.
bruise 傷つける  It was easy to bruise Mike; everything seemed to offend him.

*

calculate 計算する  The scientists found it difficult to calculate the power of the earthquake.
cast 投ずる,(役者を)選ぶ  His job was to cast actors for the new TV drama.
characterize 特徴づける  It is quite common for foreigners to characterize the Japanese as shy.
cherish 大事にする,慈しむ  In the traditional English wedding ceremony, a woman promises to ‘love, cherish, and obey’her
future husband.
circulate 循環する,循環させる  He failed to circulate the agenda before the meeting and as a result, everyone was confused.
civilize 文明化する  The British arrogantly believed that they should conquer Africa to civilize it.
clash 衝突する  Do not clash with Marty; she hates to lose an argument.
classify 分類する  If you classify the books wrongly, no one will be able to use the library.
cling 固執する,密着する  Children cling to their mothers when they start school for the first time.
coincide 同時に起こる  If the two weddings coincide, I can only attend one of them.
collapse 崩壊する,再起不能になる  People collapse if they go without water for long periods.
collide ぶつかる  If you drive on the wrong side of the road, you'll collide with other vehicles.
combat 闘争する,戦う  To combat disease, vaccinations are necessary.
commemorate 記念する  There is a national holiday in Japan to commemorate the Emperor's birthday.
commence 開始する  Punctuality is important; please commence your classes on time.
commute 通勤する  Millions of passengers commute to work in Tokyo every day.
compel 無理にさせる  It is difficult to compel lazy students to work.
compensate 償う  To compensate for working on Sunday, you will be given extra pay.
complicate 複雑にする  The effect of his question was to complicate the situation yet further.
comply 応じる,従う  Restaurants can be closed down if they fail to comply with the safety regulations.
compress 圧縮する  If you compress the powder, it should fit into the container.
comprise 包含する,~から成る  The visiting party was expected to comprise of senior officials from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
conceal 隠す  It is a serious offense (A) / offence (B) to conceal overseas purchases from a customs official.
concede (仕方なく)認める,譲歩する  He had to concede defeat as his party received very few votes.
conceive 心に抱く  Try to conceive of a situation in which thousands of people have to live in tents.
condemn 非難する  It is unjust to condemn someone without sufficient evidence.
condense 濃縮する  You can condense the sauce by boiling it for five minutes.
confer 相談する,授与する  One of the tasks of the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge is to confer degrees on successful students.
confide 打ち明ける  It is important to have one close friend in whom to confide.
confine 制限する  Try to confine your research topic a little; you only have three years in which to finish it.
confirm 確かめる,確証する  I can confirm that I am a graduate of Wisconsin University; here is the certificate.
conflict 一致しない  Their opinions seemed to conflict with each other; but then, they were always disagreeing.
conform 従う,順応する  Broadly, their views seemed to conform; this was no surprise as they usually agreed about things.
confront 直面する(させる)  In Japan, it is not the convention to confront people with a problem directly.
congratulate 祝う  He tried to congratulate him on winning the prize, but he had already left the office.
consent 同意する  In the UK, parents have to consent to their children marrying under the age of 18.
console 慰める  It is difficult to console a mother when she has lost her child.
constitute 構成する  In order to constitute a charge, valid evidence is required.
consume 消費する  If Japanese people were to consume more, the economy would improve.
contemplate 熟考する,意図する  It was difficult to contemplate such a dangerous step.
contend 争う,(強く)主張する  He tried to contend that such a policy would not work, but he was overruled.
contract 契約する,病気にかかる  To contract malaria, you have to be bitten by a mosquito.
contradict 否定する,反論する  Don't contradict me; I'm always right!
contribute 寄与する,寄付する  Please try to contribute as much as possible to the disaster fund.
convert 転換する  Some people believe that Japan should convert from nuclear energy to safer forms of power.
convey 運搬する,伝える  The ambassador was asked to convey his government's apologies for the bombing of the embassy.
coordinate 調和させる  Your task is to coordinate things so that everything happens on time.
cope うまく対処する  I know you are tired, but you must try to cope more effectively with your responsibility.
corrupt 堕落させる,買収する  The danger is that pornography on the internet will corrupt the young.
crush 粉砕する  They tried to crush the rebellion, but without success.
curse 呪う  God told Adam and Eve that if they sinned, he would curse them.

*

debate 討議する  It is pointless to debate the issues as a decision has already been made.
decay 腐る,衰退する  All civilizations decay eventually and give rise to new ones.
deceive 欺く  Husbands who deceive their wives often end up divorced.
decline 衰える,断わる  It took the Roman Empire hundreds of years to decline.
decorate 装飾する  It is customary to decorate the home with a tree and lights at Christmas.
dedicate 捧げる  He decided to dedicate his poem to a friend.
deepen 深める  John's attempts to solve the problem served only to deepen it.
defy 侮る,挑む,拒む  “If you defy me,” the father said to his son, “there will be severe consequences.”
denounce (公然と)非難する,告発する  During Stalin's rule over the Soviet Union, citizens were encouraged to denounce each other.
deposit 預ける  It is not always safe to deposit money in the bank.
depress 気落ちさせる  Miserable people tend to depress everyone around them.
deprive 奪う  Dictatorships sometimes deprive many people of their liberty.
desert 見捨てる,捨てて逃げる  Soldiers who desert the army will be shot.
designate 指定する,任命する  The ruler tried to designate his son as his successor.
despise 見くびる,嫌がる  He came to despise working for that company, so boring were his tasks.
detach 分離する  Judges have to detach themselves from their cases if they are to remain objective.
detect 探知する  Sniffer dogs can detect drugs hidden in suitcases.
devise 考案する  His job was to devise a new transport plan for the city.
dictate 口述する  As he could not write after the accident, the boss had to dictate his letters.
diminish 減らす  He did not wish to diminish the importance of the problem, but he did feel that aspects of it had been exaggerated.
disagree 意見が異なる  “I completely disagree with you,” he said angrily.
disappoint 失望させる  I'm sorry to disappoint you, but I cannot come for dinner this evening.
disapprove 難色を示す,賛成しない  I disapprove of e-mail; it stops people from communicating in a more meaningful way.
discharge 解放する,退院させる  The doctor refused to discharge the patient from hospital; he wasn't yet well enough.
disclose 暴露する  I cannot disclose his secret; I promised not to tell anyone what he said.
discount 割引する  Try to discount his remarks; I'm sure that he didn't mean to be so rude.
discriminate 区別する,差別する  If you lose your sense of taste, it will be impossible to discriminate between good and bad food.
disguise 変装する,隠す  The food was heavily salted in order to disguise its disgusting taste.
dispatch 派遣する,急送する  Please dispatch this parcel as quickly as possible.
displease 不機嫌にする  It was easy to displease Tom; nothing seemed to suit him.
dispose 処理する,片づける  Please dispose of bottles in the appropriate container.
dispute 論争する,論駁する  It was impossible to dispute the manager's decision; he was much too powerful for that.
dissolve 解消する,溶かす  There is a limit to how much sugar you can dissolve in coffee; eventually, the liquid will become saturated.
distort 歪曲する,ゆがめる  Optometrists can distort your vision if they prescribe the wrong contact lenses.
distress 苦しめる  It is possible to distress patients unnecessarily by giving them too much information about their condition.
divert そらす,転換する,回す  The railway company had to divert passengers onto another line because of the signal problem.
dominate 支配する  It is no longer acceptable for men to dominate women.
donate 寄付する  Hospitals depend on the public to donate blood.
drain 排水する,水気を切る  Dr Wilkins had to drain the bullet wound carefully before dressing it.
drift 放浪する,漂う  Unless you have a clear sense of direction, it is easy simply to drift through life.
drill 訓練する,繰り返して教え込む  The best way to teach grammatical structures is to drill them.
droop 弱る  Flowers droop unless they have sufficient water.
drown 溺死する  The water is deep; it's easy to drown if you are not a good swimmer.
dump 投棄する  It is forbidden to dump waste in the sea.

*

elaborate 苦心して作り上げる,詳しく述べる  Please don't elaborate on the situation; I can guess only too well what happened.
eliminate 除去する  To eliminate the slightest risk to the patient, please wear sterilized gloves at all times.
embrace 抱擁する,悟る  His failure to embrace the consequences of his action was characteristic of        Mark.
emerge 出現する,明らかになる  It began to emerge that they had selected the wrong person for the job.
enclose 囲む  Please enclose the playing area to protect it from dogs.
encounter 遭遇する  He had not seen his cousin for years and was surprised to encounter him in the street.
endeavor (A) / endeavour (B) (真剣に)努力する  I'll endeavor to finish everything by tomorrow; but I can't promise anything.
enforce 施行する  Beer machines make it difficult to enforce drinking laws in Japan.
enlarge 拡大する It would be necessary to enlarge the kitchen somehow before the new refrigerator arrived.
enroll 登録する  If we do not enroll more students, the school will have to close.
ensure 確実にする  Please ensure that dogs are kept on a lead at all times in the shopping mall.
entitle 資格を与える  British passports entitle their holders to enter the USA as temporary visitors without a visa.
envy ねたむ  Poor people often envy the wealthy.
erase 消去する  Please write in pencil; that way, it's easier to erase your mistakes.
escort 護衛する  It is the task of the police to escort VIPs.
estimate 見積もる  Try to estimate your expenses more accurately.
evaluate 評価する  This semester, students will evaluate their classes.
evaporate 蒸発する  When water is brought to the boil, it will begin to evaporate.
evolve 発展する,進化する  Wisdom cannot be acquired suddenly; it has to evolve over long years.
exaggerate 誇張する  Jeremy said he had spent three thousand dollars on his vacation; but he always had a tendency to exaggerate.
exceed 超過する  Do not exceed the stated dose.
excel 優れている  It is easy to do well in your studies, but much more difficult to excel.
exclude 除外する  I cannot exclude the possibility of cancer.
execute 処刑する  Some people argue that it is right to execute murderers.
exhaust 消耗させる,出し尽くす  We need to exhaust all possible solutions before this meeting can finish.
exhibit 展示する  He was asked to exhibit one of his paintings at the city's art gallery.
expel 追い出す  I shall expel any pupil who bullies another.
experiment 実験する  It is better to experiment than to make ignorant assumptions.
exploit 活用する,搾取する  To exploit the strong yen, I suggest that you buy American dollars.

*

fade (色が)あせる  Please close the blind otherwise the carpet will fade.
fascinate 魅了する  It is easy to fascinate people by pretending to have a secret.
fasten 固定する  Please fasten your seat belts before the plane takes off.
flourish 繁栄する,成長する  Children can flourish only if they have a happy childhood.
forecast 予報する  It is notoriously difficult to forecast the weather accurately.
foresee (先を)見通す  It was impossible to foresee how the illness would develop.
formulate 案出する  Meetings are a waste of time unless an action plan is formulated.
frustrate 欲求不満にさせる,失敗させる  Unforeseen events can frustrate even the most careful plans.

*

gasp あえぐ,はっと息を呑む  He could only gasp when he heard that he had passed the examination.
generalize 一般論を述べる  It is easy to generalize; but I want you to be much more specific.
generate 発生させる  In order to generate new ideas, the company needs some fresh blood.
grieve 悲嘆に暮れる  Try not to grieve too much; death comes to us all.
grumble (ぶつぶつ)不平を言う  People who grumble all the time soon lose their friends.
guarantee 保証する  Can you guarantee that the work will be finished today?

*

harass (繰り返し)悩ます  There is a growing awareness of the need to punish men who sexually harass women.
hasten 急がす,急いでする  I hasten to add that if even you win the scholarship, you will still have to pay some of your fees.
haunt (心に)付きまとう,出没する  Ghosts are said to haunt old houses.
heal 治す,治る  It will take a long time for that cut to heal unless it is stitched.
heighten 増す  It is said that not being able to see can heighten the hearing.
hover 空中に浮く,ためらう  It is polite in Japan to hover outside a room before entering.
hustle 急がす,せかす  Salesmen sometimes try to hustle customers into spending money.

*

identify 同一とみなす,正体を明らかにする  It will take time to identify the main problems.
illuminate 照らす,明らかにする  Unless you can illuminate our discussion with some new insights, it would be better not to speak.
illustrate 説明する  He wanted to use photographs to illustrate his argument; but they were too expensive.
imitate 模倣する  The best way to speak English is to try to imitate the sounds, like a parrot.
implore 嘆願する  He tried to implore her to continue the relationship, but she refused.
imply ほのめかす  Try to come out with what you really want to say; don't just imply it.
impose (義務・税金などを)課す,つけこむ  Managers can impose on their workers by asking them to work long hours.
incorporate 組み入れる  It was too late to incorporate the amendments in the document; they would have to be added later.
induce 勧めて~させる  Ian was proud and stubborn; I could not induce him to accept the prize.
indulge 甘やかす,度を過ごす  People often indulge themselves, eating and drinking much, on their birthdays.
infect (病気が人に)感染する  If you sneeze over other people you will infect them with your cold.
inflict (打撃などを)与える  NATO's aim in the Kosovo conflict was to inflict as much damage as possible on Yugoslavia.
inhabit 居住する  Geniuses tend to inhabit their own worlds; they are obsessed with their ideas.
inherit 相続する,受け継ぐ  Children inherit many character traits from their parents.
insert 挿入する  Insert your money in the slot then choose the drink you want.
inspect 検査する  To ensure safety, it is important to inspect nuclear plants regularly.
install 取り付ける  When shall I install your new computer?
instruct 指示する,教授する  When I instruct you to do so, please open the emergency exit.
insure 保険をかける,安全にする  Be sure to insure your car.
integrate 統合する  It has become necessary to integrate the two departments; with effect from next week, there will be one combined department.
interfere 干渉する  Mind your own business! Don't interfere!
interpret 解釈する,通訳する  His English was poor and he had someone to interpret for him.
interrupt 妨害する  When audiences interrupt speakers, it can be difficult for them to concentrate.
intervene 介入する  If the Bank of Japan were to intervene in the currency markets today, the value of the yen would change.
intrude 押し入る,侵害する  Journalists often intrude on privacy.
invade 侵略する,押し寄せる  Holiday-makers invade the Mediterranean area every summer.
invest 投資する  It is better to invest your capital and to spend only the interest.
irritate いらいらさせる,ひりひりさせる  Mosquito bites irritate the skin.
issue 発行する  The library staff will issue tickets next week.

*

jam 詰め込む,詰め掛ける  In an emergency, please don't jam the exits.
justify 正当化する  Although he could explain his actions, there was no way that he could justify them.

*

leak 漏らす  In Britain, it is a criminal offense (A) / offence (B) to leak government secrets.
legislate 立法する  The Japanese government is likely to legislate against some religious sects.
lengthen 長くする  Please don't lengthen the meeting by asking too many questions at the end.
lessen 小さくする  I can lessen the pain by administering an analgesic.
liberalize 自由化する  It has become vital to liberalize financial markets given the realities of the global economy.
liberate 解放する  One way to liberate money and increase spending is to lower interest rates.
link 連結する,関連させる  In the 1960's, scientists were able to link smoking and lung cancer for the first time.
long 切望する  Japanese students in the UK often long for sashimi.
loosen 緩める  Where there are breathing difficulties, begin by loosening the neck tie.

*

magnify 拡大する  Looking at a problem for a long time can magnify it.
meddle 干渉する  It's always better not to meddle in other people's business.
memorize 暗記する  There is no alternative, you have to memorize as much vocabulary as possible.
merge 合併する  More banks are set to merge in Japan.
mingle 混ぜる,混じる  I like to mingle inconspicuously at parties.
mislead 誤った方向に導く  Some politicians mislead their voters.
misunderstand 誤解する  People from one country frequently misunderstand the customs of those from another.
modify 修正する If you modify your dissertation in the way I have suggested, I'm sure that it will pass.
mold 形作る  Fathers often like to mold their sons in their own image.
monopolize 独占する  It's extremely boring when two or three people monopolize the conversation.
motivate 動機づける  A professor's own enthusiasm can help motivate his students.
mourn 嘆き悲しむ,喪に服す  In Britain, it used to be common for widows to mourn by wearing only black clothes for a year.
multiply 掛ける,増える  Once the rainy season is over, mosquitoes multiply very quickly.

*

narrate 物語る  Since the beginning of time, all cultures have loved to narrate; stories existed long before writing.
negotiate 交渉する  To negotiate successfully, there will have to be compromises on both sides.
nominate 指名する,任命する  I want to nominate you as the next president of the club.
nurse 看病する  It takes a lot of patience to nurse a very sick person back to health.

*

oblige やむをえずさせる,恩恵を施す  I cannot oblige you; I simply cannot lend you a thousand dollars.
obstruct 妨げる  To obstruct justice by lying to the police is an offense (A)/offence (B) subject to imprisonment.
offend 感情を害する  It is easy to offend people by making personal remarks.
omit 省略する,除外する  Please omit all references to your work on the examination committee; that should be kept secret.
oppress 圧迫する  The dictator said that he would continue to oppress his enemies.
originate 源を発する,創造する  If a student wants a Ph.D., he must originate his own work.
overlap 重なる  When two professors teach the same course, they overlap.
overlook 見渡す,見落とす,大目に見る  It is usually better to overlook the odd mistake when listening to a non-native speaker of a language.
overtake 追い付く  Marcus is working so hard, he will easily overtake the rest of his group.
overwhelm 圧倒する,当惑させる  If I set homework every week, I shall overwhelm you.

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parallel 匹敵する,同類である  These classes will parallel each other so that the students have a choice of professors.
penetrate 貫通する,浸透する,見抜く  The psychiatrist had a patient he could not penetrate; there was no way he could understand his problems.
perceive 知覚する  “Imagination” is the word we give to that faculty whereby we can mentally perceive what is not actually present before our eyes.
perish 滅びる,損なわれる  That food will perish unless it is refrigerated.
perplex 困惑させる  If I continue with my argument, I shall only perplex you yet further.
persecute 迫害する  One of Hitler's main aims was to persecute the Jews.
persist あくまで主張する,持続する  If the pains persist, please see a doctor.
pierce 突き抜く  If I pierce your ears, you can wear earrings.
plead 弁解する,申し立てる  How do you plead, guilty or not guilty?
plunge 陥れる  She was plunged into grief by her brother's death.
pollute 汚染する  The incineration of plastic can pollute the air.
postpone 延期する  I shall postpone giving you a grade for this semester until all your work is finished.
preach 説く  It is often said that people fail to practice (A) / practise (B) what they preach.
precede 先行する,前置きする  It was usual to precede the party with one or two speeches.
predict 予言する  The doctor could not predict how long it would take for the drugs to work.
prescribe 処方する,規定する  It was necessary to prescribe the strongest possible painkillers.
preside 議長となる,統括する  Professor Mack was asked to preside at the meeting.
presume 推定する  I presume, given how luxurious it is, that this is a very expensive restaurant.
proclaim 宣言する  Criminals often proclaim their innocence even when guilty.
prohibit 禁止する  Airlines have decided to prohibit the use of electronic games during take-off and landing.
project 投射する,考案する,放り出す  Many complicated calculations are required in order to project a rocket successfully towards a target.
prolong 長引かせる  Transplant surgery can prolong life.
promote 昇進させる,促進する  The role of the United Nations is to promote peace throughout the world.
prosecute 起訴する,遂行する  A shortage of money meant that they could not prosecute their plans.
protest 抗議する  Many people felt the need to protest when the President of China visited London.
provoke 引き起こす  It is easy to provoke an argument with some people.
puzzle 困らせる  This problem has long puzzled scholars.

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quote 引用する  If you quote from other people in your essay, please give precise citations for your sources.

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radiate 放射する  Many roads and streets radiate from the center (A) / centre (B) of the city.
raid 急襲する,取り崩す  He had to raid his savings in order to pay the legal bills.
rake かき集める  Journalists often rake up a lot of dirt on politicians they want to attack.
rally 再編成する,元気づける  Many companies in Japan begin the day with a speech the purpose of which is to rally the workers.
reassure 安心させる  I can reassure you that all the food in this restaurant is quite fresh.
rebel 反逆する  Teenagers like to rebel against their parents.
rebuild 再建する  After the Kosovo crisis, there was an attempt to rebuild relations between the USA and Russia.
rebuke (厳しく)しかる  Inspectors can rebuke passengers who use PHS phones on the train.
recall 思い出す,召還する  It was impossible to recall the event in detail after all these years.
recite 暗唱する  Many Japanese students recite English stories and poems in competitions.
recollect 思い起こす  He could dimly recollect having seen the man before.
reconcile 和解させる,折り合いをつける  Unless there is an attempt to reconcile our differences, we shall remain enemies for ever.
reconstruct 再建する  Police used volunteers to reconstruct some of the details of the crime.
refine 精製する,洗練する  Over the years, he had tried to refine his English by learning as much vocabulary as possible.
refrain 差し控える  Please refrain from smoking at all times in the station area.
register 登録する  Foreigners should register at the local government office.
regulate 規制する  Most countries regulate immigration.
reinforce 補強する  I shall reinforce my argument by showing yet more evidence.
rejoice 喜ぶ  Students rejoice when the semester is over.
render ~を~にする  If you tamper with the computer, you will render the guarantee invalid.
renew 新しくする  We can renew your visa tomorrow.
reorganize 再編成する  The government feels that there is a need to reorganize its ministries.
repay 報いる  All his life, he felt the need to repay the kindness he had received.
reproach とがめる  It is easier to reproach other people for mistakes than it is ourselves.
resent 憤慨する  I resent the fact that you have won the lottery, for you are wealthy already.
reside 居住する,属する  It is a principle of democracy that power should reside with the people.
resign 辞職する  Governments that fail in their duty should be compelled to resign.
resort (よくない手段に)頼る,訴える  I shall resort to heavy drinking if you divorce me.
retreat 退く  After the nature of the problem was explained to Dr. Michaels, he was able to retreat from his original position.
reunite 再会する(させる)  They decided to reunite after a long interval during which they had not seen each other.
revise 改訂する  She was forced to revise her plans.
revive 生き返る,復活させる  To revive the peace talks would be difficult.
revolve 回転する,巡る  The difficulty tended to revolve around the border issue.
rival 競争する,対抗する  Japanese cars rival those of all other countries.
rotate 回転する,循環する,交替する  His plan was to rotate between bread and rice.
ruin 破滅させる  My report on its malpractice will ruin the company.

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sanction 認可する  I cannot sanction such bad behavior (A) / behaviour (B).
scan 見る,調べる  If you scan the sky tonight, you will be able to see the comet.
scare 脅かす  Some stories can easily scare young children.
scheme 計画する,たくらむ  He wanted to scheme against his rival for as long as it would take to be more successful.
scorn 軽蔑する  Selfish people scorn those in need.
segregate 隔離する  Unless you segregate the rotten apples, they will contaminate the others.
shrink 縮む,少なくなる  Natural sources of energy will shrink in the future.
signify 意味する  Yes, the boss does look miserable; but it doesn't signify anything.
smash 撃破する  One purpose of the FBI is to smash the Mafia.
smear 汚す,(名声を)傷つける  It is easy for the gutter press to smear innocent people.
soar 舞い上がる,暴騰する  The price of gold is set to soar.
specify 特定する,明確に述べる  He was asked to specify the best means of dealing with the problem.
speculate 憶測する,投機をする  “Speculate to accumulate” is an old saying; it means that you have to risk losing money in order to gain more.
spur 駆り立てる  The thought of a good bonus can spur on employees.
stab (人の感情・名誉を)傷つける,突き刺す  To further his own career, he was happy to stab anyone in the back.
stack 積み重ねる  Don't stack up excuses.
stem ~から生じる  All kinds of problems can stem from a bad diet.
stimulate 刺激する  Department stores have offered huge discounts in order to stimulate spending.
strive 努める  Don't give up; just continue to strive.
subdue 征服する,鎮圧する  Tear gas was used to subdue the rioting crowd.
subject 服従させる,受けさせる  It is a severe punishment to subject a man to life imprisonment.
submit 提出する,服従する  You must submit to my authority.
substitute 代用する  For a national economy to try to spend its way out of trouble is simply to substitute one problem for another.
subtract 引く,控除する  You have to subtract the fact that he is often lazy from the originality of the work he produces.
succeed 継承する,成功する  To succeed in solving the problem of its tunnels, JR workers have had to work many extra hours.
sue 告訴する,求める  After losing half his army, the rebel leader decided to sue for peace.
summon 呼び出す,奮い起こす  Stalin used to summon his aides at three in the morning.
supervise 監督する,指導する  He refused to supervise that particular research topic.
supplement 補足する  I suggest that you supplement your diet with iron.
suppress 抑圧する,押し隠す  The government failed to suppress the newspaper report.
surpass しのぐ,~以上である  John did well in his first year at university; but he was able to surpass even that standard in his second.
surrender 降伏する,放棄する  Alleged criminals are sometimes required to surrender their passports.
sustain 維持する  He is working very hard. But will he be able to sustain his efforts?
symbolize (A) / symbolise (B) 象徴する  All countries have a flag and an anthem to symbolize their national unity.
sympathize (A) / sympathise (B) 同情する  I cannot sympathize with those who persistently break the law.

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tame 飼いならす,従わせる  The purpose of the Prime Minister's speech was to tame his wildest critics.
tempt そそのかしてさせる,誘う  Let me tempt you to another piece of chocolate.
tender 提出する  He was forced to tender his resignation once the facts of his situation became known.
tense 緊張する(させる)  Soccer players tense themselves for action before a big match.
terminate 終わる,終わらせる  Let's terminate this discussion; we're getting nowhere fast.
terrify おびえさせる  Bombs terrify people.
testify 証言する  Until recently, a wife was unable to testify against her husband in the UK.
thrive 栄える,すくすく育つ  You'll thrive in Tibet; the air is so good.
tolerate 我慢する,大目に見る  Please try to tolerate Sarah; she has had a difficult life.
torture 苦しめる,拷問にかける  The hopeless pianist continued to torture his audience.
transfer 移す,転任させる  He can't transfer ideas from one part of his mind to another; he thinks in compartments.
transform 変形させる  An injection of capital can transform a business.
transmit 伝達する,伝導する,伝染させる  Needle sharing among drug addicts is a sure way to transmit HIV.
transport 輸送する,夢中にさせる  The thought of marriage is enough to transport some people to happiness.
treasure 秘蔵する,大切にする  I shall treasure your gift all my life.
trespass 侵入する,侵害する  Please don't trespass on my territory; leave those questions to me.
triumph 勝ち誇る,打ち負かす  To swim again, after the accident, was to triumph over adversity.

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undergo (辛いことなどを)経験する  If you want to enter the Civil Service, you will have to undergo a sequence of rigorous tests and examinations.
underlie 基礎となる  These are all superficial answers; I want to know the issues that underlie the obvious facts.
undo 元に戻す,取り消す  To stop now would be to undo all the good that had been done.
unify 統一する  He sought to unify the country.
uphold 支持する,擁護する  At all costs, the family honor (A) / honour (B) is something to uphold.
utilize (A) / utilise (B) 利用する  Unless you utilize all the resources at your disposal, you will fail to complete the task adequately.

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veil 覆う,隠す  Don't publish the facts; veil them in secrecy.
verify 確かめる,検証する  It is vital to verify the results of scientific experiments before they are published.
violate (法律などを)破る  If you violate the law, you will be punished.

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withdraw 撤回する(させる)  Please withdraw that comment.
withhold 保留する,与えずにおく  It is a serious matter to withhold information from the tax authorities.
withstand 抵抗する  To climb Mount Everest, you have to be able to withstand the cold.

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yield 産する,与える,屈する  Hard work will yield good results.