この章では慣用句を扱います.慣用句とは複数の単語の連結により,元の単語が持つ意味を単純に足したものとは別の新たな意味を獲得した表現で,英語学習者にとって習得することがかなり難しいものです.ここでは,基本的な動詞が前置詞・副詞・名詞などと結び付いた慣用句のみを扱いますが,これ以外にも沢山の慣用句がありますので, 辞書や参考書でなるべく多くの例にふれ,英語独特の表現に慣れて下さい.なお,ここでの慣用句の並べ方は,辞書とはやや異なります.例えば find one's way は,辞書では way の項に入っていますが,ここでは find の項に入れています.

 

13.1.  BREAK

   1.   break away 手を切る  The liberal group broke away from the main party in 1982.
   2.   break down 故障する,取り乱す  Mechanics never seemed to be available when the car broke down. / I have seen John break down when acting.
   3.   break down into (化学的に)分解する  Water can be broken down into oxygen and hydrogen.
   4.   break in 押し入る  They broke in through the front door and stole lots of money.
   5.   break off (関係などを)絶つ  The U.K. and Libya broke off diplomatic relations with each other in 1989.
   6.   break out 勃発する  Forest fires have broken out across Greece.
   7.   break through うち破る  Demonstrators attempted to break through the barriers.
   8.   break up 解散する  The meeting broke up without an agreement being reached.
   9.   break with 別れる  After their divorce, he broke with all their friends and moved abroad.

 

13.2.  BRING

   1.   bring about もたらす  The spread of communication technologies has brought about an information revolution.
   2.   bring around 説得する  I intend to bring him around to our point of view.
   3.   bring home to はっきりと理解させる  It was beginning to be brought home to me how foolish I had been.
   4.   bring in 取り入れる警察署に連行する  The government is considering whether to bring in changes to the tax system. / The policeman brought in some men he had caught fighting.
   5.   bring into being 生じさせる  Industrialization brought many new towns into being.
   6.   bring oneself to する気になる  I couldn't bring myself to leave Japan.
   7.   bring out (真相などを)明らかにする  Misfortune brought out the best in him.
   8.   bring together 和解させる  He gained the trust of both the government and the rebels, but could not bring the two sides together.

 

13.3.  CARRY

   1.   carry about 持ち歩く  He likes to carry a spare watch about with him in case he loses one.
   2.   carry away 夢中にさせる(この意味では通例受動態に)  I got rather carried away at the department store and spent more money than I could afford.
   3.   carry off 切り抜ける  At the meeting, all the difficult business was carried off successfully.
   4.   carry on 続行する  She was not in the least disturbed, and carried on sleeping.
   5.   carry out 実行する  The supermarket chain is carrying out a survey of its customers.
   6.   carry through やり遂げる  They wanted to carry through their reforms despite the obstacles.
   7.   carry weight 影響力がある  His opinions do not carry a lot of weight with me.

 

13.4.  COME

   1.    come across 偶然に出会う  I came across this painting in a gallery in New York.
   2.    come along 順調に進む  How is your work coming along?
   3.    come and go 移り変わる  Prime ministers come and go, but nothing ever changes.
   4.    come (a)round 賛成する  They will come around to our way of thinking sooner or later.
   5.   come by ひょっこりやってくる,手に入れる  Our teacher came by just when we were discussing him. / Meat was hard to come by during the war.
   6.   come down on 非難する  The teacher came down hard on me for sleeping in class and gave me extra work.
   7.   come forward 進んで申し出る  She came forward at the last minute as a candidate for election.
   8.   come into being 生じる  When did life first come into being?
   9.   come of age 成年に達する  In Britain, people come of age at 18.
   10.   come off 成功する,実現する  It was an ingenious idea but it didn't quite come off. / The business deal never came off after all.
   11.   come out with 公表する  He had hoped to keep his divorce a secret from his friends, but his ex-wife came out with the news straight away.
   12.   come over 意見を変える  The employees will soon come over to our way of thinking.
   13.   come through 切り抜ける  He came through the fight with only cuts and scratches.
   14.   come to 意識が戻る  It was two days before the patient came to.
   15.   come to hand 手に入る  He rarely has the correct tool for the job and has to use whatever comes to hand.
  16.   come to terms with 折り合う  He slowly came to terms with her death.  
  17.   come up 生じる  I'll attend unless anything comes up.
   18.   come up with 思い付く  He came up with some solutions to the problem.
   19.   as it comes あるがままに  Planning is always futile; it's better simply to take life as it comes.
  20.   when it comes to ~となると  When it comes to Japanese literature, I know nothing.

 

13.5.  DO

   1.   do a favor 頼み事を聞く  Would you do me a favor, please?
   2.   do away with 廃止する,殺す  Let's do away with all this fuss and keep things simple. / The murderer did away with her victim while he was sleeping.
   3.   do good 効果がある  It'll do him good to take a rest.
   4.   do harm 害になる  Interfering in family quarrels often does more harm than good.
   5.   do in へとへとに疲れさせる  That hard day at the office really did me in.
   6.   do justice 持ち前を発揮する  He does not do himself justice in examinations.
   7.   do over やり直す  The publisher made her do the book over because there were many mistakes.
   8.   do up 締まる  This skirt does up at the side.
   9.   do well 健康が回復する  The heart transplant patient is doing fairly well.
   10.   do without なしで済ませる  If we're pressed for time, we'll have to do without a coffee break this morning.
   11.   can / could do with 必要である  This apartment could do with a good clean.

 

13.6.  FIND

   1.   find fault with あら捜しをする  He always finds fault with my work.
   2.   find one's voice / tongue 声が出るようになる  Although he was nervous at first, after a few drinks he soon found his tongue.
   3.   find one's way たどり着く  The city's streets are dark at night, and it is often difficult to find one's way.
   4.   find out 見つける  I decided to go to the library and see what I could find out on the subject.

 

13.7.  FEEL

   1.   feel free to do 遠慮なく~する  If you feel hungry, feel free to take some food from the kitchen!
   2.   feel good 気分がいい  Although I needed the money, I did not feel good about working for the criminals.
   3.   feel in one's bones 直感する  I knew that something would go wrong. I had no real reason, but I felt it in my bones.
   4.   feel one's age 年をとったと思う  When I went to my nephew's twenty-first birthday party, I really felt my age.
   5.   feel one's ears burning 恥ずかしくなる  After everyone found out about my affair, I could really feel my ears burning.
   6.   feel one's way 手探りで進む  When the lights went out, I had to feel my way to the door.
   7.   feel the pinch 試練を味わう  The company was going to have to make some cuts to its budget, and we would soon feel the pinch.
   8.   feel up to ~が出来そうに思う  You don't have to run the marathon if you don't feel up to it.

 

13.8.  GET

   1.   get across 理解させる  However hard I tried, I could not get my ideas across to him.
   2.   get ahead 成功する  You'll have to work hard if you want to get ahead in the business world!
   3.   get ahead of 追い越す  The horse quickly got ahead of the rest of the field.
   4.   get along with 付き合う  How is he getting along with his new colleagues?
   5.   get around 裏をかく  Clever people sometimes find ways to get around the rules.
   6.   get at 暗示する  He failed to see what I was getting at.
   7.   get back at 仕返しする  I had beaten her this time, but I knew that she would soon get back at me.
   8.   get down がっかりさせる  This damp climate is really getting her down.
   9.   get down to 取りかかる  It's difficult to get back down to things after a vacation abroad.
   10.   get hold of 連絡を取る  It's impossible to get hold of you these days. You're always so busy!
   11.   get lost 迷う  Don't wander too far, or you will get lost.
   12.   get nowhere 徒労に終わる  Despite all our efforts, we got nowhere with our various problems.
   13.   get on one's nerves かんにさわる  He gets on my nerves because he talks too much.
   14.   get on with 仲良くする  She didn't get on well with her Japanese boyfriend.
   15.   get over (困難などを)克服する,(病気や悲しみなどから)回復する  Somehow they managed to get over the communication barrier. / He will never get over his wife's death.
   16.   get sick of うんざりする  I'm getting sick of all this work.
   17.   get the sack 首になる  Unless you are punctual, you'll soon get the sack.
   18.   get wrong 誤解する  Don't get me wrong; I'm not really angry, just frustrated.

 

13.9.  GIVE

   1.   give away (機密を)もらす,正体を暴露する  Someone gave our secret plan away to the authorities. / The crook tried to appear indifferent, but his body language gave him away.
   2.   give in 降参する  After a week without food, the army soon gave in.
   3.   give off 放つ  The successful politician gives off an air of sincerity.
   4.   give out 公表する,無くなる  The examination results will be given out soon. / In two more hours, our oxygen supplies will give out.
   5.   give up on 見きりをつける  The supporters weren't about to give up on their team so easily.
   6.   give way 譲歩する  When he realized that everyone opposed him, he had to give way.

 

13.10.  GO

   1.   go ahead with (仕事などを)進める  We went ahead with our plans even though there were many problems.
   2.   go a long way 大いに役立つ  A thousand-yen note does not go a long way these days.
   3.   go around with 付き合う  I wonder why he goes around with such strange people.
   4.   go at 取りかかる  He went at the sandwich as if he were starving.
   5.   go bad 腐る  The hot weather has made the food go bad.
   6.   go by 通り過ぎる  He went by without looking in my direction.
   7.   go for 攻撃する,得ようとする  Our dog went for me yesterday! / I hear you're going to go for promotion.
   8.   go for nothing 無駄に終わる  All our hard work went for nothing.
   9.   go in for 参加する,好む  Only a few people went in for the competition. / I've never gone in much for playing chess.
   10.   go into 詳しく調べる  I wanted to know more, but he wouldn't go into details.
   11.   go into effect 施行される  The law will go into effect next year.
   12.   go off 爆発する  The bomb went off in his hands. He was killed at once.
   13.   go on 続く  This argument went on for weeks.
   14.   go over 入念に調べる  He went over the list again and again but could not find his name.
   15.   go through with やり通す  He had said he would marry the girl, but now he didn't want to go through with it.
   16.   go together 調和する  These clothes don't go together.
   17.   go under 倒産する  The company will soon go under if its business continues to decline.
   18.   go wrong 上手く行かない  I was worried that something would go wrong with our plan.

 

13.11.  HAVE

   1.   have a chance 機会に恵まれる  After she twisted her ankle, she never had a chance to win the race.
   2.   have done with やめる  Just finish the essay and have done with it. Stop worrying about it.
   3.   have in mind 考えている  Does he know what you have in mind?
   4.   have it わかる  I tried to explain to him that I was right and he was wrong, but he just wouldn't have it.
   5.   have it in for 恨みを抱く  He's always had it in for me.
   6.   have it out with 決着をつける  People told me to avoid an argument, but I wanted to have it out with him.
   7.   have nothing on 太刀打ちできない  His English has nothing on mine.
   8.   have to do with 関係がある  He has had little to do with us since he changed classes.

 

13.12.  KEEP

   1.   keep abreast of (時代に)ついていく  You must watch the news if you want to keep abreast of world events.
   2.   keep away from 近づかない  After his illness, he had to try to keep away from cigarette smoke.
   3.   keep back 隠す  Although he confessed to the first murder, he kept back the fact that he had also killed a second man.
   4.   keep in mind 覚えておく  You must keep in mind the need to be careful with your money.
   5.   keep in with 仲良くやる  He hasn't been able to keep in with his new manager.
   6.   keep on 続行する  His weight keeps on increasing.
   7.   keep to 秘密にしておく  I'm getting married. But keep it to yourself!
   8.   keep up 維持する  You are working diligently, but can you keep it up?
   9.   keep up with 情報を得ている  I watch TV to keep up with the news.

 

13.13.  KNOW

   1.   know backwards 完全に知っている  I've lived here for 62 years, so I know the place backwards.
   2.   know better そうでないと分かっている  He thought that he had beaten me, but I knew better.
   3.   know inside out 徹底的に知っている  I've lived in this town for so long that I know it inside out.
   4.   know no bounds 限界を知らない  After he'd scored the winning goal, his joy knew no bounds.
   5.   know the score 真相を知る  Though he had never told us exactly what had happened between him and his first wife, we knew the score all right.
   6.   before one knows it いつの間にか  Life's strange. One moment you're a schoolboy, then, before you know it, you're ready to retire.
   7.   in the know 内情に通じて(この例では,know は名詞として使われている)  We kept our plan a secret from most of the staff. Only a few people were in the know.

 

13.14.  LAY

   1.   lay aside 捨てる  At the end of our discussion, we agreed to lay aside our differences and work together.
   2.   lay down 放棄する  There would be no negotiations until the armies laid down their weapons.
   3.   lay into 激しく非難する  My wife was so angry when I came home drunk that she really laid into me.
   4.   lay off そっとしておく  The boys were always bullying my brother, so I told them to lay off him.
   5.   lay on 提供する  After the match, the club laid on an excellent meal for the players.
   6.   lay out 並べる  He laid the magazines out on the table.
   7.   lay up 寝込む(この意味では通例受動態)  After my accident, I was laid up for one week.

 

13.15.  LET

   1.   let alone 言うまでもなく~ない  He can't cycle, let alone drive a car.
   2.   let by 大目に見る  We can't let his errors by unnoticed.
   3.   let down 失望させる  The teacher we had employed let us down at the last minute, so we had to find a replacement urgently.
   4.   let in for (困難などに)巻き込む  They didn't know what they were letting themselves in for.
   5.   let on (秘密などを)打ち明ける  Don't let on about their divorce.
   6.   let up 弱まる  The rain's letting up? Perhaps we can have our picnic after all.
   7.   let up on きびしさをゆるめる  We can't let up on our efforts. Otherwise our opponents will win.

 

13.16.  LOOK

   1.   look ahead 将来のことを考える  We must look ahead if trouble is to be avoided.
   2.   look down on 軽蔑する  He looked down on the other students because his father was very rich.
   3.   look forward to 楽しみにする  I'm looking forward to the party. (to の後は名詞や動名詞がくる)
   4.   look good 有望に見える  Our department's sales figures are looking good this month.
   5.   look into 調べる  The police are looking into the allegations.
   6.   look out for 注意する  Look out for thieves!
   7.   look over ざっと目を通す  I looked over his essay quickly, since I didn't have time to read it carefully.
   8.   look up to 尊敬する  All his employees looked up to the company boss.

 

13.17.  MAKE

   1.   make a difference 重要である  It makes a difference in life whether or not you can speak English.
   2.   make allowances for 考慮する  We must make allowances for her inexperience.
   3.   make a face しかめっ面をする  Small children often make faces at me on the bus. I don't know why.
   4.   make a fool of ばかにする  He's always making a fool of himself.
   5.   make a mess of 台無しにする  You've certainly made a mess of things.
   6.   make away 急いで立ち去る  A policeman tried to arrest the suspect, but he made away in a hurry.
   7.   make believe ふりをする  When we were children, we used to make believe that we were soccer stars.
   8.   make (both) ends meet 収支を合わせる  When you're poor, it's very difficult to make ends meet.
   9.   make good 成功する  Although he came from a poor background, he eventually made good.
   10.   make light of 軽視する  Don't make light of the dangers involved in mountain-climbing.
   11.   make much of 重視する  Don't make too much of grammatical correctness when teaching English as a means of communication.
   12.   make nothing of 何とも思わない  I was impressed at what he had done, but he tried to make nothing of it.
   13.   make out 理解する  I can't make out the meaning of this poem.
   14.   make over 作り直す  I have to make this suit over; it's unfashionable.
   15.   make sense 道理にかなう  What my teacher says makes no sense.
   16.   make use of 利用する  We should make use of this opportunity.

 

13.18.  PLAY

   1.   play about / around 遊びまわる  When the teacher looked away, the students began to play around.
   2.   play along 調子を合わせる  Although we didn't believe his lies, we used to play along with them for a while.
   3.   play back 再生する  We played back the tape and listened to the best parts of the programme again.
   4.   play down 軽視する  After the match, he played down the importance of his goal.
   5.   play on つけ込む  Horror films play on our own natural fears.
   6.   play out 最後まで演じる  As the music played out, the cinema lights slowly brightened again.
   7.   play up 悪戯をする  The children always used to play up when we took them shopping. They behaved so badly!

 

13.19.  PULL

   1.   pull down 取り壊す  They are pulling down those houses to make way for a freeway.
   2.   pull in 逮捕する  The police suspected that the driver was drunk so they pulled him in.
   3.   pull one's leg からかう  He's just pulling your leg.
   4.   pull through 切り抜ける  We thought he was going to die, but he eventually pulled through.
   5.   pull together 立て直す,ちゃんとする  I'm sure he can pull his company together. / Don't act like a four-year old! Pull yourself together.
   6.   pull up 叱る  If they don't like your behavior, they'll soon pull you up about it.

 

13.20.  PUT

   1.   put across 納得させる  He knows his subject well but cannot put his ideas across to his students.
   2.   put forward 提出する  They have put forward a plan for improving economic output.
   3.   put into practice 実行する  Having an idea is one thing, putting it into practice is another.
   4.   put on airs and graces 鼻にかける  He put on airs and graces because he had been to Oxford University.
   5.   put on weight 体重が増える  He has put on a lot of weight since last year.
   6.   put out 困らせる  She was put out by his insulting attitude towards her.
   7.   put to shame 赤面させる  Your beautiful furniture puts my old chairs to shame.
   8.   put upon つけこむ  He felt put upon by his lazy colleagues.
   9.   put up with 我慢する  We'll have to put up with this problem for a time.

 

13.21.  RUN

   1.   run across 交わる  The new road would run across many fields and rivers.
   2.   run after 追いかける  When she left the room, I ran after her, but couldn't catch up with her.
   3.   run away with 駆け落ちをする,自制心を失う  Our parents wouldn't let us marry, so I planned to run away with my girlfriend. / Don't let your feelings run away with you.
   4.   run down 衰弱させる  When I used to work weekends, I often felt run down.
   5.   run into 衝突する  When she and I lived in the same apartment block, we often used to run into each other.
   6.   run on 続く  The argument ran on for weeks.
   7.   run out of 使い尽くす  Whenever we run out of washing powder I always have to take a trip to the supermarket to buy some more.
   8.   run over 車で轢く,(予定の時間・予算などを)過ぎる  My uncle ran over our cat, but luckily it wasn't killed. / The concert was supposed to last for an hour, but it ran over.
   9.   run to 資力がある  I haven't much money, but I can certainly run to the cost of an ice-cream for you.
   10.   run up (借金を)ためる  After she got a credit card, she ran up huge bills in all her favourite shops.

 

13.22.  SEE

   1.   see through 見抜く  It was easy to see through his disguise.
   2.   see to it that 配慮する  I'll see to it that these mistakes are corrected as soon as possible.

 

13.23.  SEND

   1.   send for 呼びにやる  When my sister became ill, we immediately sent for the doctor.
   2.   send in 送り込む  When he heard about the unrest, the president sent in the army.
   3.   send off (手紙を)発送する  The offer in the magazine looked excellent, so I sent off for further information.
   4.   send on 転送する  My mother promised to send my post on to my new address.
   5.   send out 発送する  Before my birthday party, I sent out invitations to all my friends.
   6.   send up (真似して)からかう,打ち上げる  One of my friends at school had a strange accent, so we used to send him up terribly. / The scientists sent up a rocket into the sky.

 

13.24.  SIT

   1.   sit at one's feet 教えを受ける  I sat at the feet of the priest.
   2.   sit back 気楽にする  Don't get too stressed about it. Sit back and enjoy your success!
   3.   sit by 傍観する  I wasn't prepared just to sit by and watch him spoil the party.
   4.   sit in 参観する  He wanted the new teacher to sit in on lessons to see how they worked.
   5.   sit on 役職についている  When I was a politician, I sat on many committees.
   6.   sit out 耐える  It would be a long time before they gave in, but we had to sit it out.
   7.   sit through 終わりまでいる  I'm not keen to sit through another boring meeting.
   8.   sit tight 自説を曲げない  I wanted to change our approach, but he insisted that we sit tight.
   9.   sit up きちんと座る,夜ふかしをする  His enthusiastic performance made the crowd sit up and watch. / Don't sit up late at night.
   10.   be sitting pretty 有利な立場にいる  After we had won the match, we were sitting pretty at the top of the league.

 

13.25.  TAKE

   1.   take advantage of 利用する  He was generous and people were always taking advantage of him.
   2.    take after 似ている  John really takes after his father; he has similar eyes and hair.
   3.    take back 取り消す  I regret upsetting you; I take back what I said.
   4.    take on 帯びる  The issue has taken on a new significance in the light of recent events.
   5.    take over 引き継ぐ  When the owner retired, his son took over the business.
   6.   take part in 参加する  The students took part in the experiment.
   7.   take sides with 肩を持つ  He decided not to take sides with either of his friends in their argument.
   8.    take to 好きになる  I took to Margaret as soon as I first saw her.
   9.   take to heart 深く心に留める  They make lots of cutting remarks, but he doesn't take them to heart.
   10.    take up 時間などを取る  I'm afraid I've taken up far too much of your time already.

 

13.26.  TURN

   1.    turn against 対立する  After my divorce, my wife's friends turned against me.
   2.   turn away 入場を断る  The concert was so popular that we had to turn people away.
   3.   turn back 引き返す  The weather was so bad that we had to turn back.
   4.   turn down 却下する  I applied for the job but was turned down.
   5.   turn in 床につく  It was just after midnight when I finally turned in for the night.
   6.   turn off 消す,うんざりさせる  I turned off the TV and went to bed. / Bad language always turns people off.
   7.   turn on つける,刺激する  I turned on the radio to hear the news. / The lecture was turning me on to a new way of thinking.
   8.   turn out 結局は~となる  I had to keep watching the film because I wanted to know how things would turn out.
   9.   turn round 好転させる  The new manager was sure that he could turn round the team's poor performances.
   10.   turn up あらわれる  He had lost hope of finding another job, but I knew that something would soon turn up.

 

13.27.  WALK

  1.   walk a tightrope 危ない橋を渡る  I was in a difficult position. I was really walking a tightrope.
 2.   walk away from 放り出す  If a marriage isn't working, you can't just walk away from it.
 3.   walk on air 有頂天になる  After she accepted my proposal, I felt like I was walking on air.
 4.   walk tall 威張る  After his success, he could at last walk tall in the school.
 5.   walk up 近づく  I hate it when people walk up to me in the street and start to ask me questions.

 

13.28.  WORK

  1.   work in うまく折りこむ  I'll try to work in the fact that you did a lot of the work.
  2.   work off 取り除く  He worked off his anger by going for a long run in the park.
 3.   work on 影響を与える  He's full of charm, but it doesn't work on me.
 4.   work out 理由を見つける,うまくいく  He couldn't work out why she was so late for their appointment. / Things did not work out as had been anticipated.
 5.   work up かきたてる  The union leader worked the crowd up into frenzy.