動詞等が文法上何を従える(補部として取る)ことができるかは,文を作り出す上で重要な情報です.この章では,基本的な動詞・形容詞がどんな形式の補部として取るかについて,動詞・形容詞の意味のグループごとに簡単な表を提示しています(一部補部の意味が関係する部分もあります). 作文上推奨したいパターンを基準としましたので,あらゆる場合を尽くしたり,文法上厳密に記述したりという点では期待に添えません.表に現れる○×はあくまで皆さんが英語を書いたり話したりするときに推奨したい原則であって,実際とはずれる部分が多々あると思います.また,動詞・形容詞と補部の組み合わせのパターンは○がついているからといってどれでも全く同じように自然なコロケーション (collocation, 連語)になるというわけではありません.

それでは,似た意味を持った単語がそれぞれ何を取るかという観点から,どのように類似しどのように異なっているのか,確認してみてください.そして作文の練習の際に参考にしながら身につけてください.また,単語の意味のニュアンスはあくまでガイドラインです.

冊子ではここで動詞・形容詞が何を従えるかの具体的ケースごとに表が掲載されていますが、ウェブ版では省略します。

 

番外編

なるべく名詞的表現を使用した方が英語らしくなるとよく言われます.ここでは動詞 → 基本動詞 + 名詞(+ 前置詞)という言い替えのパターンを整理しておきますので,英語らしい表現の実現に役立ててください.またこれらのパターンは,同様の意味の動詞を多用せざるを得ない場合に変化のある言い替え表現を作るのにも役立ちます.

なぜ以下の表現が本章に取り上げてあるかというと,言い替えのパターンの中で,名詞がどのような基本動詞や前置詞を取るかを身につけてもらいたいからです.

GIVE:

assist him → give / render assistance to him
brush it → give it a brush / give a brush to it
call him → give him a call
comment on it → give a comment on it
consider the possibility → give consideration to the possibility
cough → give / have a cough
cry → give a cry
encourage him → give encouragement to him
explain the delay → give an explanation of the delay
glance it → give it a glance / take a glance at it
guess → give / make / take a guess
impress him → give / make an impression on him
indicate rainfall → give an indication of rainfall
kick it → give it a kick
knock it → give it a knock / give a knock on it
offend → give offense to
permit him to go → give him permission to go
polish it → give it a polish
pull it → give it a pull
scream → give a scream
shout → give a shout
smile him → give him a smile
support him → give support to him
try it → give it a try
utter my feelings → give utterance to my feelings
wash → give it a wash
yawn → give a yawn

 

HAVE:

argue with him about Zen → have an argument with him about Zen
aspire to fame → have an aspiration for fame
converse with him → have a conversation with him
cough → have / give a cough
discuss the problem → have a discussion about the problem
dream → have a dream
drink water → have / take a drink of water
escape death → have an escape from death
fight → have a fight
look at it → have / take a look at it
nap → have / take a nap
object to his plan → have an objection to / against his plan
quarrel → have a quarrel
realize the importance → have a realization of the importance
resemble him → have/bear resemblance to him
resent his decision → have / cherish / harbor resentment against his decision
respect him → have respect for him
rest → have / take a rest
ride → have / take a ride
sleep → have a sleep
sneeze → have a sneeze
talk → have a talk
taste → have a taste of
understand → have an understanding of
wait for a train → have a wait for a train

 

MAKE:

allude to his wife → make an allusion to his wife
analyze the result → make an analysis of the result
announce their marriage → make an announcement of their marriage
appeal to him for help → make an appeal to him for help
apply for a job → make an application for a job
arrange for a party → make arrangements for a party
attack him → make an attack on him
calculate → make a calculation
choose → make a choice
claim that he is right → make a claim that he is right
compensate for damage → make compensation for damage
concede the point to him → make a concession to him about the point
confess his sin → make a confession of his sin
contribute to that church → make a contribution to that church
correct → make a correction
count them → make / take a count of them
decide → make / take a decision
declare war upon Japan → make a declaration of war upon Japan
distinguish A from B → make / draw a distinction between A and B
donate 100 yen to the society → make a donation of 100 yen to the society
examine the car → make an examination of the car
guess → make / give / take a guess
impress him → make / give an impression on him
insert photographs → make an insertion of photographs
investigate the accident → make an investigation into / of the accident
jump → make a jump
predict → make a prediction
prepare for the party → make preparations for the party
pretend to be sick → make a pretense of sickness
promise to go → make a promise to go
provide for / against a storm → make provision for / against a storm
report on the accident → make a report on the accident
reserve a seat → make a reservation of a seat
step → make / take a step
suggest that he (should) go → make the suggestion that he (should) go
throw → make a throw
turn → make / take a turn

 

PUT:

blame it on him → put / lay the blame for it on him
depend on him → put / place dependence on him
question him about his theory → put a question to him about his theory
restrict freedom → put restriction on freedom
terminate the argument → put a termination to the argument / bring the argument to a termination

 

TAKE:

count them → take / make a count of them
decide → take / make a decision
drink water → take / have a drink of water
exercise → take an exercise
glance it → take a glance at it / give it a glance
guess → take / give / make a guess
leap → take a leap
look at it → take / have a look at it
nap → take / have a nap
notice → take notice of (否定専用)
rest → take / have a rest
ride → take / have a ride
step → take / make a step
turn → take / make a turn

 

その他 :

accuse him of theft → bring an accusation of theft against him
assist him → render / give assistance to him
attend to the announcement → pay attention to the announcement
complete a book → bring a book to completion
conclude his speech → bring his speech to a conclusion
deceive him → practice (A) / practise (B) deception on him
depend on him → place / put dependence on him
discriminate against women → practice (A) / practise (B) a discrimination against women
distinguish A from B → draw / make a distinction between A and B
oppose his plan → offer opposition to his plan
A possesses B → A is in possession of B / B is in the possession of A / B is in A」s possession
punish him → inflict punishment on him
rely on him → place reliance on him
resemble him → bear / have a resemblance to him
resent his decision → cherish / harbor / have resentment against his decision
resist him → offer resistance to him
terminate the argument → bring the argument to a termination / put a termination to the argument